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Bibliografická citace

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0 (hodnocen0 x )
BK
Oxford : Oxford University, 1995

objednat
ISBN 0-19-437144-1
000015103
Rekat.
Contents // The author and series editors xv // Foreword xvii // Introduction 1 // 1 Corpus creation // Introduction 13 // Who should design a corpus? 13 // A general corpus 13 // Outline of corpus creation 14 // Electronic form 14 // Permissions 15 // Design 15 // Spoken and written language 15 // Quasi-speech 16 // Formal and literary language 16 // Typicality 17 // Design criteria 17 // Period 18 // Overall size 18 // Sample size 19 // Whole documents 19 // Minimal criteria 20 // Provisional corpus 20 // Processing 20 // Clean-text policy 21 // Basic provision 22 // Database 22 // Maintenance 22 // Different kinds of corpora 23 // Sample corpora 23 // Monitor corpora 24 // Features of a monitor corpus 25 // Contents // 2 Basic text processing // Introduction TI // Input 28 // Words and word-forms 28 // Text and vocabulary 29 // Frequency list—first occurrence 30 // Frequency list—alphabetical 31 // Frequency list—frequency order 31 // Word frequency profiles 32 // Concordances 32 // KWIC (Key Word in Context) 32 // Longer environments 33 // Ordering within concordances 33 // Concordance processing 34 // Text analysis statistics 34 // Selective information 35 // Intermediate categories 35 // New approaches 36 // 3 The evidence of usage // Introduction 37 // Existing descriptions 37 // Native-speaker introspections 39 // Language in use 39 // Word-forms and lemmas 41 // Concordances 42 // Concordance evidence: an example 44 // Sense 1: to refuse 47 // Other senses 49
Contents // 4 Sense and structure in lexis // Introduction 53 // Evidence: main senses 53 // Evidence: minor senses 55 // Counter-examples: general 56 // Counter-examples: first sense 57 // Yield with an object 58 // Yielding with an object 59 // Yielded with an object 60 // Descriptive and prescriptive study 60 // Counter-examples: second and third senses 61 // Y/’ W as transitive verb 61 // Doubtful cases 62 // First minor sense 63 // Conclusion 65 // 5 Words and phrases // Introduction 67 // Phrasal verbs 67 // Some numerical facts 68 // Combinations of set + particle 69 // The combination set in 70 // Nouns 72 // Verbs 72 // Sense (i) 72 // Sense (ii) 72 // Minor senses 73 // Sundry idioms 73 // Set in as a phrasal verb 73 // Word-forms 74 // Subjects 74 // A dictionary entry 75 // Other phrasal verbs with set 75 // Conclusion 78 // Contents // 6 The meeting of lexis and grammar // Introduction 81 // What is said about of 81 // A corpus view of of 82 // Frequency 84 // Of outside nominal groups 85 // Ofin nominal groups 85 // Conventional measures 85 // Less conventional measures 86 // The status of headword 86 // Focus nouns 87 // Focus on a part 87 // Focus on a specialized part 88 // Focus on a component, aspect, or attribute 88 // Support 89 // Metaphor 90 // Double-headed nominal groups 90 // Titles 90 // Nominalizations 91 // Modification of first noun (N1) 93 // Mopping up 94 // Superlative adjectives 94 // Fixed phrases 94 // Miscellaneous 94 // Evaluation 95 // Analysis
of examples in Table 1 96 // Non-nominal instances of of 96 // Nominal group 96 // Conclusion 98 // Contents // 7 Evaluating instances // Introduction 99 // Throw away your evidence 99 // Text and language 102 // Meaning and structure 104 // Procedure 105 // Findings 107 // Conclusion 108 // 8 Collocation // Introduction 109 // Two models of interpretation 109 // The open-choice principle 109 // The idiom principle 110 // Evidence from long texts 112 // Collocation 115 // Collocation of back 116 // Analysis of the collocational pattern of back 117 // Upward collocates: back 117 // Downward collocates: back 118 // Conclusion 121 // 9 Words about words // Introduction 123 // Structure 124 // Variation in co-text 126 // About the word itself 126 // What people mean 126 // Structure: verb explanations 127 // Animate subjects 127 // Inanimate subjects 129 // Mixed subjects 130 // Operators 130 // Summary 132 // Contents // Analysis of the second part 132 // First chunk 132 // Second chunk 134 // Discussion 134 // Applications 135 // Inferences and implications 135 // Conclusion 136 // Summing up 137 // Appendix I 139 // Appendix II 150 // Appendix III 154 // Bibliography 165 // Glossary 169 // Index 177 // Index // Entries relate to the Introduction, Chapters 1 to 9, and the glossary. References to the glossary are indicated by ‘g’ after the page number. // adjectives, superlative, with of 94 alphabetical order, // concordances 33—4,147 frequency lists 31,141,142 ambiguity 104—5
animate subjects, explanation of verbs 127-9 automatic parsing 36 // back, // collocation 116-21 meanings 112 ‘bank of English’ 26 Biber, D. 18 // Birmingham Collection of English Texts now The Bank of English 24, 40, 53-4 // Brown University corpus 19, 23-4, 40, 99100 // CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) 36 // categories, categorization 35—6, 49 character(s) 28,169g Chomsky, N 103 chunking 124,132-4 citation(s) 40,169g in concordances 43-4 forms 105,108 clean-text policy, 21-2 Cobuild 1—3,169g dictionary 2, 75, 123 1,127 English grammar 89 frequency count 143 coding standards 21 coherence 102 // Collins English Dictionary {CED), back 112 decline 44-50 pursue 113 // collocate(s), collocation 3, 71,105—7, 109-21,170g // comment, part of sentence 124, 125 competence vs. performance 103 // Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, A (CGEL) 100 Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) 36 // computer-held corpora 14—15 computer processing 27—36 concordance(s) 40 -1,42—51,105-7, 170—Ig context 171g copyright permission 15 ‘core’meaning 113 corpus/corpora 171—2g creation 13—26 kinds 23-6 size 18—19,100 corrections to corpora 22—3 co-text 124,125,126—7, 172g counter-examples 99 // Daley, R. 106 // databases from corpora 22 // data processing 27-36 // decline 44-51,150-3 // delexicalization 113 // descriptive vs. prescriptive study 60—61 // design of corpora 15—21 // deviance, text and language 102 // dictionaries 7, 38-9, 75,134-5
discourse 172g // documents in corpora 19 // double-headed nominal groups 90—93 // downward collocation 115—16,118 // electronic form of corpus 14—15 // encoding standards 21 // evaluation of instances 99—108 // evidence of usage 37—51 // examples, citing and discarding 99,100 // existing descriptions 37—9 // extracts in corpora 23 // first order word list 140 fixed phrases with of 94 focus nouns with of 87—9 // Index // formal language 16 framework of explanation 132—3 Francis, W. 23, 99 frequency 18-19, 30-32,142, 144 // genres, classification in corpora 19, 23 gloss 132—3 // grammar and lexis 81—8 8 // Hanks, P.W. 123 headword, // similarity to lemma 42 status 86—7 Hofland, K. 19,40,99 homographs 42 // idiom 8,172-3g idiom principle 110-15,173g implications from explanations 135—6 inanimate subjects, explanations of verbs 129-30 // inferences from explanations 135-6 informal language 16 informant testing 39 input of text 14-15,28 instances, citation 40 evaluation 99—108 interpretation 109—15 introspections, native-speaker 39 zs, concordance 146—9 // Johansson, S. 19,23, 40, 99 // Johnson, Dr 40 // Jones, S. 24,27,106,117 // Kucera, H. 23,99 // KWIC (Key Word in Context) 32-3,43, 146-8,173g // Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen (LOB) corpus 19, 23,40, 99-100 language vs. text 102 1 langue vs. parole 103 legal aspects, copyright 15 lemma(s), lemmatization 8, 41—2,173-4g lexicographical constructs 38 lexicography 40,123 lexis 174g // and grammar 81—98 sense
and structure 53-65 and syntax 103—4 literary language 16—17 // LOB (Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen) corpus 19, 23,40, 99-100 London-Lund corpus 24 // maintenance of corpora 22—3 Martinet, A.V. 82 meaning, // ‘core’ 113 // explanation of 123—37 and structure 104—6 units 6-9 // metaphor, with of 90 Mindt, D. 3 // mixed subjects, explanation of verbs 130 Modern English Grammar, A 100 modification of nouns 93—4 monitor corpora 9, 24-6 // native-speaker introspections 39 natural language 5—6 naturalness 5-6, 174-5g neutral collocates 116 node(s) 105-6,115,175g nominal groups 85—98 nominalizations 91-3 // occurrences, frequency 30—31,142 OED {Oxford English Dictionary) 40 of 81-98 // of course, idiom principle 110—11 open-choice principle 109—10,175g operators 124,125,130,131,132,133 optical scanning for input 14-15 ordering, in concordances 33 1,43, 140-2,146,147,148 Oxford English Dictionary {OED) 40 // paraphrase 136-7 // parole vs. langue 103 // performance vs. competence 103 // performative use 47 // period of time, coverage of corpora 18 // permissions, copyright 15 // Phillips, M. 3,31,45 // phrasal verbs 67—79 // phrase-meaning vs. word-meaning 71 // phrases, with of 94 // pragmatics 3 // prescriptive vs. descriptive study 60-61 processing of corpora and texts 20-21, 27-36 // Productive Features 61 provisional corpora 20 // Index // quasi-speech 16 Quirk, R. 24,82 // Reed, A. 27 register 110 // Renouf, A. 3,13,17,40,54 reverse alphabetization, in concordances
34,148 running words 30,175g // sample corpora 19,23 // Saussure, F. de 103 scanning for input 14-15 second, meanings 106—7 selection, // for concordances 35, 43 for corpora 20,40 1 semantics 3 sense(s), // and frequency 101-2 and structure 53-65 and syntax, co-ordination 154-6 sentences, structure 124-5 set, phrasal verbs 67—79 Sinclair, J.M. 2, 3,5,20,24,27,38, 61, 68, 89,106,108,109,117,123 slot-and-filler model 109—10 span 175g // spoken language 15—16 Stock, P.F. 49 structure, // and meaning 104—6 and sense 53-65 statements 124-5 verb explanations 127—32 subjects, in explanations of verbs 127—30 substitutability 82 superlative adjectives, with of 94 supporting nouns, with of 89-94 Survey of English Usage 100 Svartvik, J. 24 syntax, // and lexis 103—4 // and sense, co-ordination 154-6 // text analysis statistics 34—5,149 Text Encoding Initiative 21 text(s) 175—6g input 14-15 // processing 20—21, 27—36 representation, standards 21 selection 15-17 vs. language 102-4 ‘text-transitive’ 49 // The Bank of English formerly Birmingham Collection of English Texts 24, 40, 53-4 // the, frequency 18,143 thesauri 7 Thomson, AJ. 82 // time indicators, coverage of corpora 18 titles, double-headed nominal groups 90-91 // topic, part of sentence 124,125 transitivity 49 typicality 17 // units of meaning 6-9 upward collocation 116,117 usage, evidence of 37—51 // verb explanations, structure 127-32 verbs, phrasal 67-79 vocabulary 29-30,176g clustering 31 // Willis,
J.D. 3 word-form(s) 28-9,176g frequency see word(s), frequency and lemmas 41-2 see also concordances; vocabulary word-meaning vs. phrase-meaning 71 word(s) 28-9,176g explanation 123-37 frequency 18-19, 30-32,142, 144 and phrases 67-79 written language 15—16 // yield 53-65,157-63 // Zipf, G.K. 18

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