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Bibliografická citace

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BK
Oxford : Oxford University, 1996
ix,448 s.,[8] s.map.příl.

objednat
ISBN 0-19-289274-6 (brož.)
Oxford reader
Obsahuje mapky na příloze, předmluvu, poznámky, rejstřík, údaje o editorech, seznam autorů se stučnými biografiemi
Bibliografie na s. [423]-429 a [439]-442
Etnicita - čítanky
Nacionalismus - čítanky
Vztahy etnické - aspekty politické - čítanky
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CONTENTS :   List of Maps xi // Introduction 3 // I. Concepts of Ethnicity // Introduction // 1. Richard Schermerhorn, Ethnicity and Minority Groups 17 // 2. Elisabeth Tonkin, Maryon McDonald and Malcolm Chapman, History and Ethnicity 18 // 3. Manning Nash, The Core Elements of Ethnicity 24 // 4. Thomas H. Eriksen, Ethnicity, Race, Class and Nation 28 // II. Theories of Ethnicity // Introduction // 5. Max Weber, The Origins of Ethnic Groups 35 // 6. Clifford Geertz, Primordial Ties 40 // 7. Jack Eller and Reed Coughlan, The Poverty of Primordialism 45 // 8. Steven Grosby, The Inexpungeable Tie of Primordiality 51 // 9. Pierre van den Berghe, Does Race Matter? 57 // 10. Joshua Fishman, Ethnicity as Being, Doing and Knowing 63 // 11. Walker Connor, Beyond Reason: The Nature of the Ethnonational Bond 69 // 12. Fredrik Barth, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries 75 // 13. Abner Cohen, Ethnicity and Politics 83 // 14. Paul R. Brass, Ethnic Groups and Ethnic Identity Formation 85 // 15. Michael Hechter, Ethnicity and Rational Choice Theory 90 // 16. Michael В Anton, The Actor’s Model of Ethnic Relations 98 // III. Ethnicity in History // Introduction // 17. William H. McNeill, Pre-modern Polyethnicity and Ethnic Homogeneity 107 // 18. Moses Finley, The Ancient Greeks and their Nation // 19. Jean-Pierre Lehm ann, The Cultural Roots of Modern Japan 116 // 20. John Armstrong, Archetypal Diasporas 120 // 21. Robert Bartlett, Language and Ethnicity in Medieval Europe 127 // IV. Ethnicity in the Modern World // Introduction // 22. Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot 135 // 23. Daniel Bell, Ethnicity and Social Change 138 // 24. Herbert J. Gans, Symbolic Ethnicity 146 // 25. Winston James, The Making of Black Identities 155 // 26. Stuart Hall, The New Ethnicities 161 // 27. Etienne Balibar, Fictive Ethnicity and Ideal Nation 164 // 28. Rogers Brubaker, Civic and Ethnic Nations in France and Germany 168 //
29. Вassam Tibi, Old Tribes and Imposed Nation-States in the Middle East 174 // 30. Walter Zenner, Middlemen Minorities 179 // V. Ethnicity, Religion, and Language // Introduction // 31. Anthony D. Smith, Chosen Peoples 189 // 32. Cynthia Enloe, Religion and Ethnicity 197 // 33. Paschalis Kitromilides, Orthodoxy and Nationalism 202 // 34. Jaroslav Krejčí and Vítězslav Velímský, Ethnic and Political Nations in Europe 209 // 35. Jacob Landau, Diaspora and Language 221 // 36. John Edwards, Symbolic Ethnicity and Language 227 // 37. LeRoy Vail, The Creation of Ethnicity in South Africa 229 // VI. Race and Ethnicity // Introduction // 38. M. G. Smith, The Plural Society 238 // 39. John Rex, Multiculturalism in Europe 241 // 40. Frank Dikötter, The Idea of ’Race’ in Modern China 245 // 41. Immanuel Geiss, Pan-Africanism and European Imperialism 254 // 42. Leon Poliakov, The Aryan Myth and Biblical Universalism 259 // 43. Leo Kuper, Genocide and the Plural Society 262 // 44. Helen Fein, The Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust 270 // VII. Ethnic Conflict and Nationalism // Introduction // 45. John Stone, Internal Colonialism 278 // 46. Cynthia Enloe, Ethnic Soldiers 282 // 47. Donald Horowitz, Symbolic Politics and Ethnic Status 285 // 48. Florencia E. Mallon, Indigenous Peoples and the State in Latin America 291 // 49. Selig S. Harrison, Ethnicity and Politics in Pakistan: The Baluch Case 294 // 50. Paul Brass, The Politics of Ethnicity in India 301 // 51. David Brown, Ethnicity, Nationalism and Democracy in South-East Asia 305 // 52. Deniz Kandiyoti, Women, Ethnicity, and Nationalism 311 // 53. Milton J. Esman, Diaspor as and International Relations 316 // 54. Hakan Wiberg, Self-Determination as an International Issue 321 // 55. Sammy Smooha and Theodor Hanf, Conflict-Regulation in Deeply Divided Societies 326 // 36. John McGarry and Brendan O’Leary, Eliminating and Managing Ethnic Differences 333 //
57. Ray Taras, Post-Soviet Ethnic Conflict and International Politics 341 // VIII. Transcending Ethnicity? // Introduction // 58. Raymond Breton, From Ethnic to Civic Nationalism: English Canada and Quebec 348 // 59. Eric Hobsbawm, Ethnic Nationalism in the Late Twentieth Century 355 // 60. Steven Castles, Bill Cope, Mary Kalantzis, and Michael Morrissey, Australia: Multi-Ethnic Community Without Nationalism? 358 // 61. Alberto Melúccі, The Post-Modern Revival of Ethnicity 367 // 62. Kosaku Yoshino, Globalization and Ethno-Cultural Differences 370 // 63. John Hutchinson, Ethnicity and Multiculturalism in Immigrant Societies 374 // Notes 378 // Select Bibliography 423 // Biographical Notes 430 // Source Acknowledgements 439 // Index 443
INDEX :   Aborigines, see indigenous peoples Afghanistan, Afghanis 296-7, 298 Africa, Africans 11, 13, 174-5, 187, 236, 247, 253, 254-8, 276, 316; Pan-Africanism 254-8; see also anti-colonialism Africa, Southern 61, 187, 229-35, ЗЗ6, 339 Afrikaners 60, 61, 339 Afro-Carribbeans 133, 155-61, 242; relation with British Asians 160-2 Albanians 316 Algeria, Algerians 265-6 America (United States), Americans 12,133,135-8, 139, 141, 143, 144, 146-55, 180, 224-6, 375-7; Afro-Americans 138, 143, 317; South 340; WASPS 136-7, 144 anomie 244; see also identity anti-colonialism, anti-imperialism 144-5, 46. 254-8 // anti semitism 179-80, 181, 237, 260, 262; see also Holocaust Arabs 174-9. 193. 194, 223-4 archaeology 252-3 aristocracy 89-90, 123, 281 Aristotle 19, 112-13 Armenia, Armenians 105, 120-7, 149. 192, 237, 270-4, 3>7. 328 Armstrong, John 9-so, 319 art, artists 73-4 Aryan myth 236, 259-62 Asia, Asians 11,13, 80, >79-80, 242, 275, 276; South East Asia 236, 276, 305-11, 319 assimilation 5,11-12, 133,169, 350-5; and symbolic ethnicity 149-50, 152-5 Australia 316, 346, 358-67, 374-7 authenticity 41, 68-9 // Bailey, F. G. 84 Balkans 202-8 Baluchistan, Baluchs 27, 294-301; compared with Bangladesh 300-1 Bangladesh, Bangladeshis 280, 300, 323, 334 Banton, Michael 29 Barth, Fredrik 9, 10 Becker, Howard 179 Belgium, Belgians 241, 266-7, 327. 329 Bengalis 287-9 Berbers 282, 283, 284 Berghe, Pierre van den 29. 39> n. 2 biology 8, 57-63, 64. 252-З. 254; see also race Blacks, Black identity 133, 155, 156, 157-9, 161, 163; class 158; negritude 44,157,159,394 n. 12; see also Afro-Carribbeans blocked mobility 28c 304 blood ties, see kinship bodily experience 9, 63-6; see also physical features Boers, see Afrikaners Bolivia, Bolivians 293-4 Bonacich, Edna 179-80, 182 Bosnia 12 // boundary, boundary approaches 9,32, 75-82, 187; mechanisms 25-8; 79-82, 126 Brass, Paul 33 Britain, British 133, 155-61,162-3, 241, 242,243, 297, 298, 299, 300, 418 n. 7
Brittany, Bretons 280-1 Brubaker, Rogers 12 Buddhism 107-8, 110, 118-19, 290 Bulgaria, Bulgarians 88 bureaucracy, bureaucratic politics 13-14. 367-8; language politics 286-90, 304 Burma, Burmese 290, 306, 308, 309 Burundi 61, 266, 267, 328 // Cameroon 327 Canada, Canadians 280, 334, 340, 346, 348-55. 375-7; English/British 349-55; French 349-55; see also Quebec capitalism 11, 179-80, 346, 370-5; see also industrialization; pariah capitalism caste n, 60, 61, 80, 266, 275, 302, 303, 304, 305 Catalonia, Catalans 99-100 ceremonies 146-7. 346, 374-7 Chad 327 China, Chinese 73, 98, 101, 102, 108-11, 236, 245-54, 319; Han 73. 250, 251, 252 chosen peoples; see ethnic election Christianity, Christendom 125, 259-6, 271; Latin 127-32; Old Testament models 122; Orthodox 21, 187, 192, 193, 202-8 circumstantialism 48 citizenship, citizens 11-12,41,168-73,243.244, 245. 307-8, 312-16,331, 332-3, 337,339. 364. 370,374; integration 245, 308; jus sanguinis 169-72; jus soli 169-72; naturalization 170 city-state 112-16 class 9.30-1.86,104,133,142-5,157-8,161, 235, 244, 253-4, 292, 294. 301, 365. 367 // Cohen, Abner 180-1 cold war 336 colonialism, colonial states 13, 83-4, 183, 236, 239-40, 264-6, 279, 323; indirect rule and ’tribal’ ethnicity 229-35, З11-16; see also empires; internal colonialism; martial races commensality 25 communications 14, 124; modem mass 13-14, 223-4 communism 142, 253-4, 339 community, communalism 30 conflict-regulation 13, 276, 326-41 Confucianism 109-10, 248, 249, 250, 251 Congo 325 Connor, Walker 9, 14, 15 conquest 105, 108, 127-32, 183, 391 n. 2 consumerism 100-1 core-periphery relations, see internal colonialism cross-cultural industry 370-5 cult, common 25-7,35, 36,38, 39; see also religion; ritual culture 112-14; mass 367; public and private 243, 244-5; see also ethnic identity customs 37-8, 44-5, 128 Cyprus 327 Czechs 129, 130, 333 // Darwin, Darwinianism 57, 248, 252 decolonization 265-70
deconstructionist approaches 12 democracy, democratization 12, 42, 243-4, 452, 266, 305, 309-11, 329-30, 337-8; consociational 329, 330, 332; ethnic 330-1; liberal 332-3, 336, 339; see also hegemonic control demography 300, 338, 350-2, 354-5, 356, 377 descent, myths of; see myths De Vos, George 85-6 diasporas 5,12-13, 105, 107-8, 120-7, 159, 163, 181, 187, 191, 192, 196, 222-ć, 258, 276, 316-20, 416 n. 1; definition 316; mobilized and proletarian 318, 319-20; see also middleman minorities disease patterns 106 division of labour 276, 304; cultural: hierarchical 280; ethnic 182; segmental 280 dominant-subordinate groups 15, 17-18, 22-3, 28, 326-41; see also conflict-regulation; minorities; plural societies dress 25-6, 60, 315-16 Durkheim, Emile 139, 244, 245, 281 ecology 77-8 economy, economic integration 80-1, 91-2, 139, 143-4, 179-86, 336-7, 35Z-3; service 133, 143 education 299, 316; higher and professional strata 143, 145, 230-5, 304; schools 165-8, 224-6, 230-1, 351; teachers 281, 289 Egypt, Egyptians 313, 327-8, 331; ancient 190-1 elites, elite competition 8-9,11,14, 33, 89-90,169, 170,175,176, 179,182,185, 237, 267, 270-4, 281, Z93, 303-4, 308-10. 336. 337, ЗЗ8. 346, 352, 353, 358, 370-5 Eller, Jack and Coughlan, Reed 52-6 emigration, emigrants 173, 196; see also immigration, immigrants empires 10-11, 109-11, 231-5, 265-70, 282-5, 318. 336, 341-2, 391 n. 2; see also colonialism; decolonization endogamy 58-9, 126 England, English 128,129,130,131,133,162,163,195 Enlightenment 204, 236-7, 259-62 Eriksen, Thomas 15 Esman, Milton 175, 178 Estonia, Estonians 173, 356 Ethiopia 192, 316 ethnic classification 13, 275 ethnic conflict 3, 4, 265-70, 275-345, 355-7, 374-7; see also genocide ethnic election 121-2,127,179,189-97,349, 362; see also ethnic honour ethnic entitlement, see ethnic honour ethnic honour 35, 37, 182, 275, 285-91 ethnic identity, ethnicity passim; anthropologists 15,18-19, Z3, 28, 174;
cosmology 66-7; definitions and etymologies 3-5, 15-16, 19-31, 127,174-9, 197-8, 305-6, 310-11; fictive 133-4, 164-8; fluidity 8 12, 15, 33, 46, 67-9; historians 174; maintenance of 78-82; new 161-3; private-public 187, 227-9, 243-5, 314-15; social theorists/scientists 67-9, 174-9. 293; solidarity 42; traditional versus modem 69; transgenerational aspects 63-6; see also ethnies; identity; symbolic ethnicity; ethnic persistence 9-10, 34, 80, 189-97, 275; communal-demotic 195; diaspora-restora-tion 196; emigrant colonist 196; patterns of: imperial-dynastic 195 ethnic pluralism, see plural societies ethnic revival 13-14, 65-6, 133, 138-55, 341, 346, 368-70 ethnic spillover 342 ethnic transcendence 346-58 ethnies (ethnic communities) passim; affective bond 144-6; definitions 5-7, 17-18, 19-24, 35. 75-6, 85-6, 103, 127, 134; form of social organization 78-9; informal political grouping 84; interest group 86, 138, 144-6; periodization io-п; relation to culture 76-8; self-ascription 75 ; state recognition and 301-3; types; aristocratic 10; demotic 10 ethnocentrism 5, 246-7, 248-9, 253 ethno-genesis 10 ethno-regionalism, see region ethnos 4, 19-20 ethno-symbolic approaches 9-го, 105, 187 eugenics 253 Europe, Europeanism 11; distribution of ethnic and national communities 211-19; medieval 127-32, 183-4; modern 140-1, 187, 209-21; Pan-European institutions 276-7, 343 Europe (Eastern) 11, 105, 172, 173, 198, 279-80 Europe (Western) 11, 140-1, 172, 173, 221-6, 241-5 European Community 172 // family 49 51, 52, 55-6; see also kinship feminism 311-16 Finland, Finns 281 Fishman, Joshua 9 // France, French 134, 168-73, 193-4, 227, 241, 242, 265-ć, 280-1, 3x3, 317, 320 Franks 193-4 // French revolution, republican tradition 12, 169, 170, 171, 243 Freud, Sigmund 72-3 frontier zones 127-32, 192, 297; see also geopolitics Fukuyama, Francis 344-5 ’fundamentalist’ movements 356-7; see also religion; tradition Fumival.J. 80, 236, 239, 263
futurism 375-6 // game theory 93 99-100 Gans, Herbert 228 Gastarbeiter 12, 222-3, 225 Geertz, Clifford 8, 45, 47, 48 Gellner, Ernest 13, 312 gender relations 12, 233-5, 276, 311-16 genocide 13, 61, 237, 249, 262-74, 367 geography, ethnic 247; see also territory geopolitics 122-3, 192. 297, 342 Germany, Germans 72-3, 112, 128, 129, 130, 131, 134, 137. >38, 168-73, 222, 224, 241. 242, 260, // 271-4. 315-16 globalization, globalism 13-14, 277, 336, 346-7, 359-61. 370-5; and decentralization 344-5, 370; see also internationalization // Greece, Greeks: ancient 4, 11, 19-20, 35, 105, 111-16; Byzantine 18; modem 187, 196, 203-8, 224-6 group entitlement, see ethnic honour Gurkhas 282-3 Gusfield, Joseph 285-6 // Habsburg Empire 28г Handelman, Don 6 Hausa 84, 181 Hechter, Michael 49, 279-81 hegemonic control 338-41; see also dominant-subordinate groups Herder, Johann 64, 260 Herodotus 4, 19-20, hi, 115 Hesiod 113-15 Hinduism, Hindus 268-70, 301-5. 335. 340 history, historians 7,187,210,229-30,232,295, 297, 311, 368-9, 370; see also memory; myths; tradition Hitler, Adolf 271 Hittites 191 Holland, Dutch 241, 242 Holocaust 270-4; as symbol 148-9 Holy Roman Empire 328 homeland 7, 52, 74, 147-8, 173, 197, 223-6, 294, 316-18; sacred centres 121-2,194-ć; see also territory Homer 4,19 homogeneity, homogenization 11-12, 13, 105, 107, 108,109, 119-20, 128, 169,174, 178, 308-10, 359-61 Horowitz, Donald 3, 7, 9-10, 49, 182 Hungary, Hungarians 281 Hutu 61, 266-7, 328 hybridity 9, 12, 133,163 // identity, identity crisis 24, 173, 270-1, 368, 370; multiple 7, 8,12, 98-103,116; see also national identity immigration, immigrants 12, 22-3, 99-100,106, 133, 134, 135-61, 169-73. 183-4, 236, 241-5, 316-20, 350-5. 356, 364, 377; third generation return 148; see also diasporas; migration; nation; symbolic ethnicity imperialism 13; see also colonialism; ethnic classification inclusion/exclusion 4, 20-3, 79-82, 374-7; see also boundary approaches;
the ’Other’ India, Indians 44, 45, 202, 260, 267-70, 275-6, 286, 287, 301-5, ЗЧ, 327. 340 indigenous peoples 264, 275, 278, 291-4, 340, 364, 367, 375; socialism 293-4 Indonesia, Indonesians 44, 45, 308, 309, 328-9 industrialization 13-14, ’78, 279, 346; see also modernization instrumentalism 8-9, 33-4, 68-9, 83-4, 89-90, 161-3, 164-8 intellectuals, intelligentsia 140, 229-31, 232-3, 235, 247, 253, 288-90, 375-6 intermarriage 8, 59, 150, 199 internal colonialism 275, 278-81, 291-4, 323 international law 322-6 international politics/relations 316-20, 341-5, 376 internationalization 372; see also globalization interstate system 276, 280, 336 Iran, Iranians 297, 298, 299, 300-1; see also Persia, Persians Iraq, Iraqis 176-7, 326 Ireland, Irish 128, 130-1, 137, 195-6, 227 Islam, Muslims 88, 125, 128, 132, 268-70, 271-2, 299, 301, 302, 304, 311-16; Shi’a 176-7; Sunni Г76-7, 299 Israel 173, 201, 226; see also Jews Japan, Japanese 14, 105, 108-9, 116-20, 247, 250, 346,370-5 // Jews 12, 61, 72,105,108,120-7, 137-8. 147.148, 149. 150, 151, 152, 179-81, 183, 184, 185, 226, 259-62, 270-4, 317-18, 320; ancient 11, 115, 190, 191, 316 Jordan 327 kinship, kin selection 8, 25, 32, 35, 43, 49, 52-3, 55-6, 63, 71-5, 124, 167-8, 250-1, 305, 307 Kohn, Hans 307 Kurds 280, 295, 3x5, 328 // labour market 180, 241; see also economy Laitin, David 99-100 language 13, 25-6, 36, 44, 51-2, 60-1, 63-9, 88-9, 105, 118, 120, 124-5, 126, 127-32,164-7, 187. 197-8, 210-11, 220-1, 222-9, 230-2, 275, 295-6, 300-5, 351, 352-3, 354, 355, 356, 357, 421 n. 1; as communication 187, 227; sacral 124-5, 126; as symbol 187, 227-9, 275, 287-91; vernaculars 128-32, 187, 230, 300 language death 131-2 Latin America 11, 240, 275, 291-4 Latvia. Latvians 173 law, legal system 92 Lijphart, A, 332 literacy 299 literature 73-4 Lustick, lan 338, 340-1 // McKay. James 9, 48-9 McNeill, William 14 Malaysia, Malays 44, 98-9. 101-2, 306. 308, 309, 327, 340 martial races 282-5
Marxism, Marxists 65 mass communications, see communications masses 33. 293-4, 300. 343, 358; sentiments 33, 34 /media, see communications Meinecke, Friedrich 112, 307 Melanesia 80 melting pot theory, critique of 135-8; see also assimilation; symbolic ethnicity Melucci, Alberto 14 memory 7, 10, 35 Mesopotamia 190, 191 mestizo 292, 293 Mexico, Mexicans 291, 292, 294 middle classes/strata 233, 288-90, 300 Middle East 11, 108, 174-9, 311. 312, 313. 315 middleman minorities 12, 92,107-8, 123-4, 134, 179-86, 265, 273, 319 migration, large-scale 11, 234-5, 302, 316-20, 356; racism and 58, 61-2 Mill, John Stuart 65 millenarianism 69 minorities 5, 12, 13, 15, 17-18, 23, 133, 175, 228-9, 237. 243, 244, 294-301, 302-5, 308-10, 316, 322, 342-3, 350-5; see also diasporas; dominant-subordinate groups; genocide; middleman minorities mission, see ethnic election missionaries 108-9, 188, 229-31 modern-traditional dichotomies 311-16 modernity, modernism 14, 64, 69, 177 modernization 89, 139-40, 177-8, 256-7. 279-81, 293, 311-16, 349-50, 352-5, 356-8, 369 Muhajirs 295 multi-culturalism 12, 162-3, 187. 236, 241-5, 346, 347. 374-7; inequality and 364-5, 366-7; varieties of 364-5 multi-ethnicity 285-91; see also plural societies; polyethnicity / music 74 Muslims, see Islam / myths, myth-making 105, 187, 189-97, 374-71 ancestry/descent 7, 35, 71-3, 114, 122, 250-3, 259-62, 295; election 7, 187, 189-90; foundation 374-7; golden age 7. 233. 311, 313 // name, naming 16, 41, 103, ill, 129,137-8 narrative 134 Nash, Manning 15-16 natio 4 nation passim; definitions 5, 71, 86, 111-12, 177-8, 209-11, 321-3, 383 nn. 7, 8; types and aspects: civic 12, 13, 49, 169-73. 209-21, 307-9, 375; ethnic 12, 134. 169-73. 209-21, 307-9, 375; immigrant 12, 14, 135-8, 346, 358-67. 374-7 nationality 384 n. 7 nation-state 11-12, 69-75, m. 164. 168-72, 174-9. 279, 359-62; definitions 18; see also nation; nationalism national identity/sentiment 69-70,168-73, 202-8, 209-21, 253, 375;
psychological basis 70-5 national states: definition 13 nationalism 69-75, 116-20, 140-1, 202-8, 250-2, 253. 294-301, 305-Ч. 341-5. З69-70, 376-7: definitions 30, 384 n. 8; ethno-cultural 307-10, 312, 313. 348-55. 355-8, 370, 374: political (civic) 307-10, 348-55, 374: types: anti-colonialist 236; irredentist 316, // 418 n. 1; new 344-5, 369-70; pan 174, 179, 236, 254-8; secessionist 279-80, 294-301 Nazism 61, 68, 237, 259, 270-4 new nationalism, see nationalism newspaper 223-4; see also communications New York 135-8 Nigeria, Nigerians 84 Normandy, Normans 195 Northern Ireland 334, 340 Norway, Norwegians 77-8 // objectivist approaches/factors 15-16, 70, 77, 85, 209, 321 Olson, Mancur 100 Orientalism 311,312,313; see also the ’Other’; West Ottoman Empire 11, 21,123-6, 203, 271-4; millet 21, 124 // Pakistan, Pakistanis 44, 201, 268-70, 275, 294-301, 327 Palestine, Palestinians 324, 327 pariah capitalism 179-80, 181-2,184-6, 241, 391 n. 2; see also middleman minorities Park, R. E. 133 Parsons, Talcott 368 partition 327, 330, 333-6; see also conflict regulation Pashtuns 294, 295, 299 Pathans 77 patriotism, contrasted with nationalism 69-70 peasantry no / people 20, 38-40. 276; definitions of 321-3 Persia, Persians 191-2, 193; see also Iran Peru, Peruvians 292-3, 294 physical features 25-6, 30, 36-7, 43-4, 60, 61-2, 246, 247; see also bodily experience; race; symbols / plural societies 13, 80-2, 138-9, 236, 237-41, 262-70, 391 nn. I, 2 Poland, Poles 70, 129, 130, 131, 195 politics 83-4, 86-7, 89, 138-46, 147-8, 161-3, 295-311, 315-16. 337-8; see also instrumentalism; state polyethnicity 12 80-2, T05, 107-10; see also multi-ethnicity post-colonialism, see state / post-industrialism 13-14, 138-46 post-nationalism 172-3. 277, 343, 359-61, 375 postmodernism/modernity 367-70 primordialism, primordial sentiments 8, 9, 32-4, 41-5, 51-6,146, 177, 310-11, 362; affectivity 48-50; coerciveness 42, 47-8;
cognitive versus affective aspects 53-5; conflict with civic sentiments 42-5; critique of 45-51; as givens 41-2, 46-7 psychoanalysis 261-2 Punjab, Punjabis 268-79, 295, 299; see also Sikhs // Quebec, Quebecois 280, 334, 346, 349-55. 375. 377. 420 n, 2, 421 n. 1; Quiet Revolution 349 // race, racism 13, 21-2, 23, 29-30, 43-4, 57-63, 64, 91, 102, 120, 155-61, 162, 163, 165, 167-8, 236-74, 346, 363-5. 367. 374, 381 n. I, 387 n. 9: social 57-63 rational choice theories 9, 33-4, 74, 90-8; collective action 92-3, 100; free rider 90-1, 93-4, 100, 385 n, 3; preference-formation 94-8 region, regionalism 44, 275-6, 278-81 relative deprivation thesis 280-1 religion, religious community 13, 25, 36, 44, 88-9, 90, 107-9, 118-20, 120-7, 151-2, 187-8, 189-208, 211, 220, 250, 259-62, 267-70, 290, 301-5, 335, 353. З56-7; scriptures and liturgies 126; types of and ethnic boundaries 197-202 rites, ritual 36, 375-6; see also ceremonies; symbols romanticism 140, 257 Rome, Romans 35 Romania, Romanians 206-7 Rosenau, James 343-4 Russia, Russians 173,193, 257, 342, 391 n. 2; Third Rome 192 Rwanda, Rwandans 61, 266-7, 328 // scapegoating 153-4; see also pariah capitalism Schermerhom, Richard 6, 15 science, scientific revolutions 59-62, 252 Scotland, Scots 194 Scott, George 48, 49 secession 334-8, 418 n. 7; see also nationalism secularization 69, 349, 350, 353 self-determination 276, 334-8; definitions and applications of 321-6, 418 n. 2 Shils, Edward 8, 32, 48, 53-4 Shintoism 118-19 Sikhism, Sikhs 88, 269, 282, 283, 284, 287. 302, 340 Sindhis 294, 295 Singapore 306. 308, 327 Slavs 128, 129, 131; Pan-Slavism 257 Smith, Anthony D. 9-10. 14, I75. 177-8 Snyder, Louis 174 social psychological approaches 9-10, 285-91 socio-biology 8, 32; fitness maximization 59, 62-3; nepotism 8, 32, 57-9, 60; reciprocity 60 Somalia, Somalis 316 sovereignty 172 277, 322, 324, 325, 344, 348, 359-61 Soviet successor states 172, 173, 276, 341-5
Soviet Union 70,172,173,183, 276, 313, 314,391 n, 2 Spain, Spanish 70, 132, 259 Sri Lanka 326 state, modern it, 12, 139-40, 322-3; civic loyalties 41-2, 69-70; colonial 275, 314; intervention in internal ethnic conflicts 342; post-colonial 13, 41, 43, 275, 285-91, 303-5; varieties of and ethnic politics 305-11, 320 status politics 285-91; see also politics; state stereotyping 25, 82, 246, 247, 252, 346; see also scapegoating straight-line theory 228; see also assimilation sub-groupism, see nationalism subjectivist approaches/factors 15-16, 35, 85-6, 189, 209, 321; see also objectivist approaches/ factors Sumer, Sumerians 190 supranationalism 172; see also globalization Sweden, Swedes 241, 327 Switzerland, Swiss 194, 328, 335 symbolic ethnicity 12, 133, 146-55, 227-9; third generation return 148, 228 symbols 9-10,17, 25-8,36,37,73,103,121,126,147-50, 152, 154, 155, 180-1, 187, 228-9, 40. 250, 275, 285-91, 296-7, 314-16, 369; see also dress, language, physical features, religion, women / Syria, Syrians 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 327 // Tajfel, Henri 9 territory 73-4, 116-18, 120, 187. 194. 209-10, 220, 322, 369, 384 n. 7; see also geopolitics; homeland / Thailand, Thais 308, 309 the ’Other’ 4, 20, 21, 22, 23, 313 trade, traders, 105,107-8, 122-4, 179-81, 183-4; see also middleman minorities tradition, traditionalism 27-8, 55, 171, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 256-7, 356-7; see also history, historians transactionalism 9, 33; see also boundary approaches Transcaucuses 334, 342 tribe, tribalism 15, 20, 22, 38-40, 83-4, 134, 174-9, 187, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 255, 283, 296, 297. 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 305 Tsarist Empire 193; see also Russia Turkey, Turks 187, 221-4, 271-4, 316, 328; see also Ottoman Empire Tutsi 61, 266-7, 328 // Ukraine, Ukrainians 72, 335, 342 United Kingdom, see Britain, British United Nations 262, 267, 323-6 urbanization 13, 133, 178-80, 299 // Vietnam, Vietnamese 44 //
Wales, Welsh 129, 130, 195, 356 war 122-3, 197, 747-8, 270-4, 324, 328, 336, 362; see also martial races Weber, Max 8, 27, 28, 32, 56, 189 West, Westernization 312-16 women 12, 57-8, 233-5, 276, 311-16, 357 working classes, decline of 142-4; see also class // xenophobia, see ethnocentrism // Yugoslavia 70, 101-2, 316, 340 // Zionism 88, 196, 357, 421 n. 4 Zoroastrianism 192

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