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Bibliografická citace

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0 (hodnocen0 x )
(14.2) Půjčeno:71x 
BK
3rd ed. completely revised and updated
Harlow : Longman, 2004
xii,370 s.

objednat
ISBN 0-582-40385-5 (brož.)
Obsahuje předmluvu, rejstříky (věcný a jmenný)
Bibliografie: s. 359-364
Angličtina - vyučování - metodiky
000082390
Contents // page // Preface ix // Acknowledgements xi // PART 1: LANGUAGE // CHAPTER 1: THE WORLD OF ENGLISH A The place of English // A1 The numbers game // A2 How English got there // A3 Where English fits // A4 The future of English // ? Varieties of English B1 Three circles // B2 Appropriate models of English // B3 General and specific // CHAPTER 2: DESCRIBING LANGUAGE // A Grammar 12 // Al Spoken and written grammar 13 // A2 Problems with grammar rules 15 // ? Vocabulary 16 // B1 Language corpora 16 // B2 Word meaning 18 // B3 Extending word use 19 // B4 Word combinations 20 // B5 The grammar of words 21 // C Language in use 23 // Cl Purpose 23 // C2 Appropriacy 24 // C3 Language as discourse 25 // C4 Genre 27 // D The sounds of the language 28 // D1 Pitch 28 // D2 Intonation 28 // 1 // 1 // 2 // 4 // 5 // 6 6 8 9 // i // CONTENTS // D3 Individual sounds 29 // D4 Sounds and spelling 31 // D5 Stress 32 // E Paralinguistic features of language 33 // El Vocal paralinguistic features 33 // E2 Physical paralinguistic features 33 // PART 2: LEARNERS AND TEACHERS // CHAPTER 3: DESCRIBING LEARNERS // A Age 37 // Al Young children 38 // Al Adolescents 38 // A3 Adult learners 40 // ? Learner differences 41 // B1 Aptitude 41 // B2 Good learner characteristics 41 // B3 Learner styles 42 // B4 Language levels 44 // B5 Individual variations 45 // B6 What to do about individual differences 48 // C Motivation 51 // Cl Defining motivation 51 // C2 Sources of
motivation 51 // C3 Initiating and sustaining motivation 52 // CHAPTER 4: DESCRIBING TEACHERS // A What is a teacher? 56 // Al Teachers and learners 56 // ? The roles of a teacher 57 // B1 Controller 58 // B2 Organiser 58 // B3 Assessor 59 // B4 Prompter 60 // B5 Participant 60 // B6 Resource 61 // B7 Tutor 62 // B8 Observer 62 // B9 Which role? 63 // C The teacher as performer 63 // D The teacher as teaching aid 64 // D1 Mime and gesture 64 // D2 Language model 65 // D3 Provider of comprehensible input 66 // CONTENTS // PART 3: THEORIES, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES // CHAPTER 5: SOME BACKGROUND ISSUES // A Pulling habits out of rats 68 // ? ‘Language learning will take care of itself 70 // C Noticing 73 // D The affective variable 74 // E Discovering language 75 // CHAPTER 6: POPULAR METHODOLOGY // A Approaches, methods, procedures, and techniques 78 // Al Audio-lingualism 79 // A2 Presentation, Practice, and Production 80 // A3 PPP and alternatives to PPP 82 // A4 The Communicative approach 84 // A5 Task-based learning 86 // A6 Four methods 88 // A7 Humanistic teaching 90 // A8 The Lexical approach 91 // ? What methodology? 93 // B1 Methods and culture 93 // B2 Making choices 96 // CHAPTER 7: MISTAKES AND FEEDBACK // A Students make mistakes 99 // ? Assessing student performance 100 // ?1 Teachers assessing students 100 // B2 Students assessing themselves 102 // C Feedback during oral work 104 // ?1 Accuracy and fluency 104 // C2 Feedback during accuracy work 106
// C3 Feedback during fluency work 107 // D Feedback on written work 109 // D1 Written feedback techniques 110 // D2 Finishing the feedback process 112 // PART 4: MANAGING CLASSES CHAPTER 8: GROUPING STUDENTS // Different groups 114 // A1 Whole-class teaching 114 // A2 Students on their own 115 // A3 Pairwork 116 // A4 Groupwork 117 // iii // CONTENTS // A5 Ringing the changes 118 // ? Organising pairwork and groupwork 119 // ?1 Making it work 119 // B2 Creating pairs and groups 120 // B3 Procedures for pairwork and groupwork 122 // B4 Troubleshooting 124 // CHAPTER 9: PROBLEM BEHAVIOUR AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT A Why problems occur 126 // ? Preventing problem behaviour 127 // ?1 Creating a code of conduct 127 // B2 Teachers and students 128 // C Reacting to problem behaviour 129 // D ‘Please speak English!’ 131 // D1 Why students use the mother tongue in class 131 // D2 Attitudes to mother-tongue use in the classroom 131 // D3 What to do about it 132 // CHAPTER 10: EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND OTHER TEACHING EQUIPMENT // A Pictures and images 134 // ? The overhead projector 136 // C The board 137 // D Bits and pieces 139 // E The language laboratory 141 // E1 Advantages of the language laboratory 142 // E2 Activities in language laboratories 143 // F What computers are for 145 // G Homegrown materials production 151 // PART 5: FOCUSING ON LANGUAGE // CHAPTER 11: STUDYING LANGUAGE // A Studying structure and use 154 // Al Language study techniques 154 // A2 Language study in
lesson sequences 156 // A3 Known or unknown language? 157 // A4 Choosing study activities 158 // ? Examples of language study activities 159 // ?1 Introducing new language 159 // B2 Discovery activities 161 // B3 Remembering 163 // I // —--- CONTENTS // CHAPTER 12: RESEARCHING LANGUAGE // A What dictionaries are for 168 // Al Reference and production dictionaries 169 // A2 Training students to use dictionaries 171 // ? What grammar books are for 173 // C What language corpora are for 175 // ?1 Typical or divergent? 177 // D Examples of language research 178 // CHAPTER 13: TEACHING PRONUNCIATION // A Pronunciation issues 183 // A1 Perfection versus intelligibility 184 // A2 Problems 184 // A3 The phonemic alphabet: to use or not to use? 185 // A4 When to teach pronunciation 186 // ? Examples of pronunciation teaching 187 // ?1 Working with sounds 187 // B2 Working with stress 191 // B3 Working with intonation 194 // B4 Sounds and spelling 196 // B5 Connected speech and fluency 197 // PART 6: RECEPTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE SKILLS // CHAPTER 14: TEACHING RECEPTIVE SKILLS // A How we read and listen 199 // A1 What we bring to the task 199 // A2 Reasons for reading and listening 200 // A3 Top-down and bottom-up 201 // A4 Different skills 201 // ? Problems and solutions 203 // B1 Language 203 // B2 Topic and genre 205 // B3 Comprehension tasks 207 // B4 Negative expectations 208 // CHAPTER 15: READING // A Extensive and intensive reading 210 // A1 Extensive reading 210 // A2 Intensive reading:
the roles of the teacher 213 // A3 Intensive reading: the vocabulary question 213 // ? Reading lesson sequences 215 // B1 Examples of reading sequences 215 // CONTENTS // CHAPTER 16: LISTENING // A Extensive and intensive listening 228 // Al Extensive listening 228 // A2 Intensive listening: using taped material 229 // A3 Intensive listening: ‘live’ listening 230 // A4 Intensive listening: the roles of the teacher 231 // ? Listening lesson sequences 232 // ?1 Examples of listening sequences 233 // C The sound of music 242 // CHAPTER 17: TEACHING PRODUCTIVE SKILLS // A Productive skills 246 // Al Structuring discourse 246 // A2 Following the rules 246 // A3 Different styles, different genres 247 // A4 Interacting with an audience 248 // A3 Dealing with difficulty 249 // ? Productive skills in the classroom 249 // ?1 Reception and production 250 // C Problems and solutions 251 // Cl Language 252 // C2 Topic and genre 252 // CHAPTER 18: WRITING // A Writing conventions 255 // Al Handwriting 255 // A2 Spelling 256 // A3 Layout and punctuation 256 // ? Approaches to student writing 257 // B1 Process and product 257 // B2 Writing and genre 258 // B3 Creative writing 259 // B4 Writing as a cooperative activity 260 // B5 Using the computer 260 // B6 The roles of the teacher 261 // C Writing lesson sequences 262 // CHAPTER 19: SPEAKING // A Elements of speaking 269 // Al Language features 269 // A2 Mental/social processing 271 // ? Classroom speaking activities 271 // ?1 Acting from
a script 271 // B2 Communication games 271 // CONTENTS // B3 Discussion 271 // B4 Prepared talks 274 // B5 Questionnaires 274 // B6 Simulation and role-play 274 // B7 The roles of the teacher 275 // C Speaking lesson sequences 276 // CHAPTER 20: TEACHING WITH VIDEO // A Using video in language learning 282 // Al Why use video? 282 // A2 Video problems 283 // A3 Video types 284 // A4 Whole-lesson video 284 // A5 Video as part of a lesson 285 // A6 Self-access video 286 // ? Common video teaching techniques 286 // B1 Viewing techniques 286 // B2 Listening (and mixed) techniques 287 // C Video watching activities 287 // Cl General comprehension 287 // C2 Working with aspects of language 288 // C3 Video as a springboard to creativity 289 // D Video-making activities 290 // D1 Video simulations 290 // D2 Creative ideas 290 // D3 Working with language 291 // D4 Getting everyone involved 292 // D5 What to do with the videos 292 // D6 Video and the teacher 293 // PART 7: DESIGN AND PLANNING // CHAPTER 21: SYLLABUSES AND COURSEBOOKS // A Syllabus design 295 // Al Syllabus design criteria 295 // A2 Different syllabuses 296 // A3 The multi-syllabus syllabus 299 // ? Choosing coursebooks 301 // ?1 Criteria for assessment 301 // B2 Evaluation measures 302 // C Using coursebooks 304 // Cl Coursebook or no coursebook? 304 // C2 Options for coursebook use 305 // vii // CONTENTS // CHAPTER 22: PLANNING LESSONS // A Pre-planning 308 // ? The plan 310 // ?1 The planning continuum 310 // B2 Making
a plan 312 // B3 The formal plan 313 // B4 Planning a sequence of lessons 317 // C Using lesson plans 318 // ?1 Action and reaction 318 // C2 Plans as records and research tools 320 // PART 8: EVALUATION // CHAPTER 23: TESTING STUDENTS // A The characteristics of tests 321 // A1 Different types of test 321 // A2 Characteristics of a good test 322 // ? Types of test item 322 // ?1 Direct and indirect test items 322 // B2 Indirect test item types 323 // B3 Direct test item types 325 // C Writing and marking tests 327 // Cl Writing tests 327 // C2 Marking tests 328 // D Teaching the test 331 // PART 9: LOOKING FURTHER // CHAPTER 24: LEARNER AUTONOMY, TEACHER DEVELOPMENT // A The autonomous learner 335 // Al Routes to autonomy 336 // A2 The self-access centre (SAC) 340 // A3 After the course 342 // ? The developing teacher 344 // B1 Action research 344 // B2 Professional literature 347 // B3 Developing with colleagues 347 // B4 A broader view of development 350 // FOLLOW-UP TASKS 354 // BIBLIOGRAPHY 359 // INDEXES (Subject and Author) 365 // viii

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