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Bibliografická citace

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BK
1st ed.
London : Longman, 1983
xii,250 s.

ISBN 0-582-55110-2 (brož.)
Longman linguistics library
Obsahuje předmluvu, úvod, rejstřík, údaje o autorovi
Pragmatika - studie
000087376
Contents // Preface x // A note on symbols xiii // 1 Introduction i // i. i Historical preamble i // 1.2 Semantics and pragr tics 5 // 1.2. i An example: the Cooperative Principle of // Grice . 7 // 1.3 General pragmatics 10 // 1.4 Aspects of speech situations 13 // 1.5 Rhetoric 15 // 2 A set of postulates 19 // 2.1 Semantic representation and pragmatic // interpretation  // 2.2 Rules and principles 21 // 2.3 Convention and motivation 24 // 2.4 The relation between sense and force 30 // 2.5 Pragmatics as problem-solving 35 // 2.5.1 The speaker’s task, viewed in terms of // means-ends analysis 36 // 2.5.2 The addressee’s task, seen in terms of // heuristic analysis 40 // 2.6 Conclusion 44 // 3 Formalism and functionalism 46 // 3.1 Formal and functional explanations 47 // 3.2 Biological, psychological, and social varieties of // functionalism 48 // Vlil // CONTENTS // 3.3 The ideational, interpersonal, and textual functions // of language 56 // 3.3.1 A process model of language 58 // 3.3.2 An illustration 62 // 3.3.3 The textual pragmatics 63 // 3.4 The ideational function: discreteness and // determinacy 70 // 3.5 Examples of‘overgrammaticization’ 73 // 3.6 Conclusion 76 // 4 The interpersonal role of the Cooperative Principle 79 // 4.1 The Cooperative Principle (CP) and the Politeness // Principle (PP) 79 // 4.2 Maxims of Quantity and Quality 84 // 4.2.1 Implicatures connected with definiteness 90 // *4.3 Maxim of Relation 93 // 4.4 The Hinting Strategy and anticipatory
illocutions 97 // 4.5 Maxim of Manner 99 // 4.5.1 The obliquity and uninformativeness of // negation 100 // 5 The Tact Maxim 104 // 5.1 Varieties of illocutionary function 104 // 5.2 Searle’s categories of illocutionary acts 105 // 5.3 Tact: one kind of politeness 107 // 5.4 Pragmatic paradoxes of politeness no // 5.5 Semantic representation of declaratives, // interrogatives and imperatives 114 // 5.6 The interpretation of impositives 119 // 5.7 Pragmatic scales 123 // 5.8 Tact and condescension 127 // 6 A survey of the Interpersonal Rhetoric 131 // 6.1 Maxims of politeness 131 // 6.1.1 The Generosity Maxim 133 // 6.1.2 The Approbation Maxim 135 // 6.1.3 The Modesty Maxim 136 // 6.1.4 Other maxims of politeness 138 // 6.2 Metalinguistic aspects of politeness 139 // 6.3 Irony and banter 142 // 6.4 Hyperbole and litotes 145 // 6.5 Conclusion 149 // 7 Communicative Grammar: an example 152 // CONTENTS // IX // 7.1 Communicative Grammar and pragmatic force 152 // 7.2 Remarks on pragmatic metalanguage 156 // 7.3 Some aspects of negation and interrogation in // English 157 // 7.3.1 Syntax 157 // 7.3.2 Semantic analysis 159 // 7.3.3 Pragmatic analysis 164 // 7.3.3.1 Positive propositions 164 // 7.3.3.2 Negative propositions 165 // 7.3.3.3 Ordinary ??5-?? questions 165 // 7.3.3.4 Loaded questions 166 // 7.4 Implicatures of politeness 169 // 7.5 Conclusion 171 // 8 Performatives 174 // 8.1 The Performative and Illocutionary-Verb Fallacies 174 // 8.2 The speech act theories of Austin
and Searle 175 // 8.2.1 Declarations 179 // 8.3 Illocutionary performatives: descriptive and // non-descriptive approaches 181 // 8.4 Illocutionary performatives and oratio obliqua 184 // 8.5 The pragmatics of illocutionary performatives 189 // 8.6 The performative hypothesis 192 // 8.7 The extended performative hypothesis 193 // 8.8 Conclusion 195 // 9 Speech-act verbs in English 198 // 9.1 Locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary 199 // 9.2 A survey of speech-act verb classes 203 // 9.2.1 Illocutionary and perlocutionary verbs 203 // 9.2.2 Classifying illocutionary verbs 205 // 9.2.3 Problems of classification and their solution 207 // 9.2.4 Phonically descriptive and // content-descriptive verbs 212 // 9.3 Is there a separate class of performative verbs? 213 // 9.4 A semantic analysis of some illocutionary verbs 216 // 9.5 Assertive verbs 223 // 9.6 Conclusion . 225 // 10 Retrospect and prospect 229 // References 234 // Index // 24? // Index // [Main or defining references are in boldface.] // addressee, 13, 15, 153 addressee-orientation, 219, 221 addresser, 13 // Agreement, Maxim of, 132, 137, 138, 142, 149 // Akmajian, A., and Heny, F., 74, 75 Alston, W. P., 6, 20, 203-4 ambiguity, 2, 66-7, 68 Ambiguity Maxim, 66 ambivalence, 23-4, 122 anticipatory illocution, 97-9, 120 apology, 124-5, 132 Approbation Maxim, 132, 135-6, 140, 149, 220 // arbitrary meaning, see meaning argumentative function, see function Argyle, M., and Dean, J., 12 artificial intelligence, 4, 229 asking,
114-15, 117 assertion, 41,44, 114-15 assertive, 105-6, 205, 208, 209, 223-5, 227?? // argumentative assertive, 224 predictive assertive, 223, 224, 228?18 // retrodictive assertive, 223, 224, 228ni8 // assertive predicate, 210-11 attitudinal predicate, 211-12 Austin, J. L., x, xi, 2, 6, 12, 14, 15, 128?2,156, 174, 175-81,195,19b, 197?9, 198, 199, 200, 205, 226? 228?20 // authority scale, 126, 144, 220 Bach, K., and Harnish, R. M., 128?2, // 196?4, 205, 220?2, ?4, n8, ?9, 228ni8 // background knowledge, 13, 93, 94 Banter Principle, 144-5, 15108 de Beaugrande, R., and Dressier, W., 233?7 // Bloomfield, 17?2 // boasting, 136 // Bolinger, D. L., 17203 // Brown, P., and Levinson, S., 128?, // 05 // Brown, R., and Gilman, A., 126 Bühler, K., 57 // Carnap, R., 6 // causative verbs, 203, 204 // Chomsky, N., 1, 2, 3, 4, 17?5, n6, 46, // 54-5,74,76111,03,771110 // clarity, 100 // Clarity Principle, 66-7, 69, too, 102 Clark, H. H., and Clark, E. V., 91, 101, 151?? // clash of principles/maxims, 80, 82-3, 84,137,147,231,232 cognitive verbs, 207 collaborative illocutionary functions, 104-5 comity, 105 // command (distinguished from imperative), 114 // commissive, 106, 107, 109, 127, 132, 206, 209, 217,, 218, 220, 221 commissive predicate, 210-12 communicative function, see function communication, x // ideational, see message // 244 // INDEX // interpersonal, see discourse see also process model of communication communicative goal, 200 communicative grammar, xi, 152-72 competence, 3, 4 // competitive
illocutionary function, // 104-5 // complementarism, x, 6, 7, 19, 88, // 114, 183, 187, 190, 230 conative function, see function conditionality factor, 219 conflict, 112-14, 144 conflict of principles/maxims, see clash conflictive illocutionary function, // 104-5 // congratulation, 132 constative, 176 constitutive rules, 8, 21-2 content-descriptive verb, 212-13 context, 3, 13, 15 convention, 24-30, 44, 45??, n 12 arbitrary, 43 motivated, 26 // conventional implicature, 11, 18?4, // 91, 119 // conventionalization, 28 conversational analysis, 4. 10 conversational implicature, 9, 27, // 32-3, 40, 90-3, 119, 146, 153, 165, 229 // conversational principles, 7-10 convivial illocutionary function, 104-5 Cooperative Principle, 7-10, 15, 17, i8niI, 23, 24, 27, 30-4, 40, 42, 59, 69, 79-84, 88, 89, 91,93, 94, too-I, 104, 120, 131, 133, 135, 137, 141, 142, 145, 146, 147, 149, 164, 166, // 170, 171-2,190,229, 231 corpus data, 231 // corroborative conditions, 42-3, 164 Corsaro, i8nn // cost-benefit scale, 107-12, 114, 123, 124-5, 126, 132, 133-4, ITS, // 219-20 // courteous goal, 105 CP, see Cooperative Principle creditive predicate, 211 cross-linguistic studies, 231 Crystal, D., 12 // Davy, D., 12 // declaration, 106-7, i33, 179-81, 206, 216 // declarative, 114, 121 decoding, 60 deep structure, 19 // analysis, 208, 209, 226?6 default interpretation, 42, too, 164 definiteness, 90-3 descriptive function, see function determinacy, 70-3 direct illocutions, 37 direct speech, 184-7, 213 direct speech
acts, 37, 229 directive, 106, 107, 205-6, 208, 209. // 217, 218, 220, 221 directive predicate, 210 discourse, 59, 199, 226, 231 discourse analysis, 4, 59, 231, 232 discourteous goal, 105, 109 discreteness, 70-3 do-support, 21 // dubitative predicate, 211-12 dynamic features, 12 // Economy, Principle of, 25, 67-8 Edmondson, W., 232, 233116 elliptical response, 26 encoding, 60 // End-Focus, Maxim of, 22, 63, 64-5, 69, 70, 74, 75-6 // End-Weight, Maxim of, 65-6, 69, 73-4 // cnonce, i8ni6 énonciation, i8ni6 entailment, 224 essential condition, 164 // see also default hypothesis euphemism, 147 exaggeration, 143, 147 see also hyperbole expectation, 168 actual, 168 cancelled, 168 // experiential function, see function Expressibility, Searle’s Principle of, // ill // expressive, 106, 132, 206, 209, 217, // 218, 220, 227?13 expressive function, see function expressive predicate, 210-12 expressive repetition, 69 Expressivity Principle, 68-70, 230 extended standard theory, 3 // Face Threatening Act, see FTA felicitousness, 176 // INDEX // 245 // Fillmore, 2271113 // Firth, 2, 54 // Flattery Maxim, 135 // force (distinguished from sense), 17, // 24, 30-5, 152, 174, 228 // (relating force to sense), 80, 104, // 131 // see also illocutionary force, pragmatic force, rhetorical force // formalism, 46-7, 76 // (distinguished from functionalism) // 4-5, 46-7, 76 // Fraser, B., 193, 226?5, ?9 function of language, 49-58, 61 // argumentative, 49, 52, 53, 57, 58, // 157 // communicative, 51 conative,
see signalling function descriptive, 49, 53, 57, 58, 157 experiential, 57. expressive, 49, 5*, *54 ideational, 56, 62, 70-3 interpersonal, 56, 57, 58, 62, 73 logical, 57 metalinguistic, 52 propositional, 159, 163 signalling, 49, 51,52, 154, 157 speech-reporting, 212 textual, 56, 57, 58 thought-reporting, 212 functionalism, 46, 48-76, 198 biological, 48-50 psychological, 51 social, 51-3 // garden paths, 67, 77?3 Gazdar, G., 102?5, 193 general pragmatics, see pragmatics Generosity Maxim, 132, 133-4, 136, 149, 150 // goal, 13, 24, 30, 40 // see also competitive, // communicative, courteous, discourteous, illocutionary, preparatory, rhetorical, social, ulterior // goal-directed behaviour, 36-40, 51, 61, 95, 112, 143, 150, 227, 230 goal-oriented, see goal-directed Gordon, D., and Lakoff, G., 103??, ??, 197?2 grammar, 4, 12-13 categorical, 71-3 // communicative, xi, 152-72 distinguished from pragmatics, see pragmatics generative, 3 transformational, 73-4 grammaticality, 73-5 Grice, H. P., x, 2, ?-io, i8nio, 27, 30-4, 42, 43, 451112, 48, 69, 79, 80, 91, 99-IOO, ?2?2, I3I, I35-6, I53, ISS, I64-5, 229 Gumperz, J. J., i8ni2 // Halliday, M. A. K., 2, 12, 15, 46, 54, 56-8, 59, 61,70, 75, 76?, 78?23, 229 // Harnish, R. M., i8ni2, ?14 Harris, R., 196?6 // hedged performatives, 140, 150?3, 215 hedging, 101, 114 // heuristic analysis, 40-3, 104, in, 153, 164 // hierarchy of instrumentality, 200 higher-order principles, 144-5 hinting strategy, 97-9, 122, 128, 139-40 // Holdcroft, D., 193 hyperbole,
145-9, 150 // konicity Maxim, 68, 230 ideational communication, see message ideational function, see function idiom, 146 idiomatization, 194 illocution, see illocutionary act illocutionary act, 14, 22, 24, 59, 105-7, 174-5, 176, 180, 188-9, 196, 198, 199-203, 204, 205, 207, 2o8ni, ?4, ?5, n8 // see also anticipatory, assertive, commissive, declaration, direct illocutionary act, directive, indirect illocutionary act illocutionary categories, 207-11 illocutionary failure, 205 illocutionary force, 3, 5, 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 22-3, 43, 153-4, 156-7, 174-5» 177, 182, 192, 193, 200, 228?20, 229, 230, 232 // illocutionary functions, see collaborative, competitive, conflictive, convivial illocutionary goal, 17, 82, 94, 98, 104-5, 154,180, 199,202 illocutionary meaning, 200 // 246 // INDEX // illocutionary performative, 181-9, // 196 // illocutionary predicate, 209-12 illocutionary verb, 174-5, 176, 181, 198, 203-7, 209, 212-13, 216-23, 225 // addressee-oriented, 219 speaker-oriented, 219 illocutionary verb fallacy, 174-5, 201 imperatives, 114-18 implicature, 30-1, 33, 42, 44, 90-3, 94, in, 112, 119, 120, 133, 141, 143-4, 153-4, 166-9, 169-71 // see also conversational, logical, meta-implicature, politeness, second-instance impolite beliefs, 170 impositive, 108-10, 114, 119-23, 124, 132 // indeterminacy (of pragmatic meaning) 23,30,35, 154 // indicative propositions, 117, 118, 160 indirect illocutions, 32-3, 38-9, 62, 94-6, 97, 103??, nn, 108-9, 203 indirect speech act, 33, 37-9, 229 indirectness,
scale of, 108-9, I23“4, 126,127,195 insincerity, 142-3 // instantaneous present, 186-7, 19708 Interest Principle, 146-7, 149, 151?11 interpersonal communication, see discourse // interpersonal function, see function interpersonal pragmatics, see pragmatics // interpersonal rhetoric, see rhetoric interrogation, 152, 157-69 interrogatives, 114-18 Irony Principle, 83, ?2?2, 127, 131, 142-5, 150, 229 IP, see Irony Principle // Jakobson, R., 57 // Karttunen, L., and Peters, S., 18?4 // Katz, J. J., 1-2 // Keenan, E., 18 // Kempson, 103?8, 117 // Kim, ?., 223?4 // Kuhn, T. S., 3, 17?4 // Labov, W., i8ni2, 70, 72 Lakoff, G., 3, 174 left-branching, 65 // Levin, S. R., 18-19 // linguistic theory (scope of), 2, 3 // linguistic universal, 46 // litotes, 145-9 // loaded questions, 166-9 // locutionary act, 176, 199-203, 207 // logical form, 5, 19 // logical function, see function // logical implicature, 85-8 // lower-order principles, 145 // Lyons, J., 9, 13, 17?8, i8ni6, I28n8 // McCawley, J. D., 197??, 233 mand, 114, 116, 117, 119, I28n8, 210 see also reported mand Manner, Maxim of, 8, 39, 66, 99-100, 101, 166, 167, 168 markedness, 75, mi maxims (distinguished from rules), 9-10, 133 // see also clash of principles/maxims and maxims under Agreement, Ambiguity, Approbation, End-Focus, End-Weight, Flattery, Generosity, konicity, Manner, Modesty, Negative Uninformitiveness, Phatic, Politeness, Quality, Quantity, Reduction, Relation, // Sympathy, Tact, Transparency Meaning, 2, 5, 15, 17, 34-5,
210 arbitrary, 25 conveyed,155 illocutionary, 200 intended, 155-6 propositional, 80 semantic v. pragmatic, 6 see also indeterminacy means-end analysis, 36-40, 42, 58-9, 62, 95-6, 123, 154, 156,157,175, 179-80, 200-3, 225, 229 meiosis, see litotes message, 59, 60, 100, 199, 200 metagrammar, 25, 27 meta-implicature, in-12, 212 metalinguistic function, see function metaphor, 29, 194 // metapropositional, 156, 161-2, 17203, 188,210 // Miller, G. A., and Johnson-Laird, // P. N., 172 // Miller, R. A., 136-7 minimum illocutionary assumption, 42, 171 // INDEX // 247 // miscommunication, 35 mock-impoliteness, 144 modality, 152 // Modesty Maxim, 132, 135, 136-8, 140, 149, 150, 220 Morris, 6 // motivated convention, see convention motivation, 24-30 // Natural Constituent Structure, Principle of, 77?2 Natural Serialization, Principle of, 77?2 // negation, 152,157-63,165-9 Negative Uninformativeness, Sub-Maxim of, 100-2, 143, 152, // 165, 168 // negative question, see question negotiation (of pragmatic factors), 23, 232,233 // Newmeyer, F. J., 17m non-indicative propositions, 116, 117, 118, 160 // non-performative, 189-91, 192 non-posterior time, 218, 223 non-speech act verbs, 204 // objective knowledge, 49, 62 obliquity, 96, too-1, 120, 139, 167, // 170 // optionality scale, 109-10, 123, 126, 175, 219, 221 // or, inclusive and exclusive, 88, 103?8 oratio obliqua, 139, 181, 183, 184-9, 191, 210, 212, 213 // overgrammaticization, 20, 58, 73-6, 215, 232 // Palmer, F. R., 89, 103?9 paradigm (defined),
3 pardons, 124-5 particle-postponement rule, 74 passive, 22 performance, 4 // performative, 156, 174-96, 216, 225, 227?4, ?17, 229 explicit, 176, 192 primary, 176 // see also hedged performative, illocutionary performative, non-performative performative-deletion, 192 performative fallacy, 174-5, 11? I82, 196?2,228?20 // performative hypothesis, 6, 19-20, 174-5, 192-5, 213 extended, 193-5 performative verb, 177, 189, 195, // 213- 16 // performative utterance, 176, 189 see also performative performativity, 215 perlocutionary act, 176, 199-203, 226n2 // perlocutionary failure, 205 perlocutionary verb, 203-5, 212, // 214- 15 // phatic act, 197?9 phatic communion, 39, 40, 141 Phatic Maxim, 141-2 phonetic act, 200 // phonically-descriptive verb, 212-13, 214, 215-16 phrastic act, 200 plan, 201 // politeness, 12, i8nio, 26, 27, 29, 62, 80, 81-2, 83-4, 96, 102, I02ni, 104, 107, 109-10, in, 122, 123, 131-3, 146, 147, 154, 160,169-71, 199 politeness // absolute, 83-4 negative, 83-4, 107, no, 133 off-record, 82 on-record, 112, 121 positive, 84, 107, no, 133 relative, 83-4, 134 politeness implicatures, 170-1 politeness, Maxims of, see maxims under Agreement, Approbation, Generosity, Modesty, Phatic, Sympathy, Tact // politeness, metalinguistic aspects of, 139-42 // Politeness Principle, 7, 15, 17, i8nn, 26, 33, ?9-40, 59, 69, 79-84, 93, 105, in, 120, 131, 132, 142, 144, 154, 170-1, 229, 231 Pollyanna Principle, 147-8, 15inn polysemy, 208 // Popper, K., 5, 48-58, 154, 157 posterior time, 218,
223 postulates, 5, 19-44, 47-8, 54-6, // 70-3 // power, see authority PP, see Politeness Principle pragmalinguistics, n, 18?3, 231 pragmatic asymmetry, 133 pragmatic exemptions, 27 // 248 // INDEX // pragmatic failure, 231 pragmatic force, 17, 35, 152-6, 203 see also illocutionary force pragmatic hypothesis, 193 pragmatic metalanguage, 156-7 pragmatic paradox, no-12, I28n6, // 136-7 // pragmatic principles, 9-10, 133, 231 see also principles under Banter, Clarity, clash of, conversational, Cooperative, Economy, Expressibility, higher-order, Interest, Irony, lower-order, Natural Constituent Structure, Natural Serialization, Politeness, Pollyanna, Processibility, second-order, third-order, Transparency // pragmatic restrictions, 27, 68 pragmatic scales, 123-7, 132, 136 see also scales under authority, cost-benefit, indirectness, optionality, praise-dispraise, social-distance // pragmatic specialization, 28, 194 see also idiomatization pragmaticism, 6, 20, 232 pragmatics, x, 4, 6, 15 // distinguished from grammar, xi, 4, 10, 12-13, 14,47-8,56,57, 70-1,73,75,89-90, 174,215 distinguished from semantics, // 5-7, 10, 14, 89, 114-15, 171, 192, 196, 221, 222, 230 general, 1,5, 10-13, 84 interpersonal, 62, 93, 229, 230, // 232 _ // referential, 11, 93 textual, 63-70 // pragmatics as problem-solving, x, 5, 31,35-44, 153, 164, 229 pragmatics as part of theory of action, // 32 // praise-dispraise scale, 132, 135-8 predicate, see predicates under assertive, attitudinal, creditive, commissive,
directive, dubitative, expressive, illocutionary, propositional attitude, psychological, rogative, speech act, volitional // predictive assertive, see under assertive preparatory condition, 164, 166, 172 // preparatory goal, 98 presupposition, 3, 17?3 principles (distinguished from rules), 5, 9-10, 21-30, 133, 173 principles, pragmatic, see pragmatic principles // process model of communication, // 58-63, 199 // Processibility Principle, 64-6, 67, 230 proposition, 114-15, 116, 119, 121, // 122, 156,182-3, 190* 224 see also propositions under // indicative, non-indicative, real, reported, unreal // propositional, 115, 117, 118, 156, 160 propositional attitude predicate, see creditive predicate // propositional content, 115, 117, 129?9, // 159 // propositional function, 159, 163 propositional logic, 21, 80, 152 psychological predicate, 211 see also predicates under attitudinal, creditive, dubitative, volitional psycholinguistics, 4 // Quality, Maxim of, 8, 24, 31-4, 42, 84-90, 91, 100, hi, 133, 142-3, 145, 147, 151?9, 164, 190, 212, 216 Quantity, Maxim of, 8, 9, i8nu, // 31-3, 42, 80, 84-90, 91,92, 93, 94, // 101, 135, ME 142, 143, 145, 164, 165, 166, 168, 216 question, 96, 114, 117, 121, 122 assertive question, 167 loaded question, 166-9 negative question, 167, 170 negative assertive question, 168, 169 // non-assertive question, 168 // real propositions, 118 receiver, 13 // reciprocity of perspectives, 170 Reduction, Maxim of, 67 referential pragmatics, see pragmatics reflexive
belief, 191 reflexive intention, 34-5, 45?11 register, 12 // regulative rules, 8, 21-3 Relation, Maxim of, 8, 25, 27, 35, 42, 81, 93-6, 97, 100, 102, 155, 164, 165,231 // INDEX // 249 // relevance, 94-5, 97, 99, 100, 128, 155 reported mand, 212 reported proposition, 211 retrodictive assertive, see assertive rhetic act, 197?9, 200 rhetoric, ?, 15-17, 24, 145 // interpersonal, 15, 57-89, 60, 63, 95, 100, 118, 122, 131-50,157, 175, 229 // textual, 15, 22, 45?5, 57-9, 60, // 62, 76, 100, 157, 230, 231, 233?. // rhetorical force, 17 // rhetorical goal, 154 // right-branching, 65 // rights and duties, 126, 128?3, 129?7 // rogative predicate, 210-11, 212 // rogative verbs, 206, 209 // Rosch, E., 71 // Ross, J. R., 2, 7, 44m, ?2, 70, 174, 175,193 213 // rules (distinguished from principles), 5, // 21-4 // see also constitutive rules, particle-postponement rule, regulative rules // Sadock, J. M., 29, 38, 129?5, 174, // 192,193-5, 197012, 213 ,Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, 178 Saussure, F. de, 25, 54-5 scalarity, 225 // scales, pragmatic, see scales under authority, cost-benefit, indirectness, optionality, praise-dispraise, social-distance // Searle, J. R., x, xi, 2, 6, 7, 13, 20-1, 22, 24, 32, 38-9, 44, 45113, ?4, 48, 103??, nn, 105-7, 128m, ?7, 132-3. 153. 154. 156,159. 164,165, 166, 169, 171, 172m, 174-81, 193, 195, 196, 196?, ?2, ??, ?4, 198, // 200, 205-6,207,208, 215, 225, 22??, ?5, ??, 227?3, ?15 second-instance implicature, 167-8, 172?6 // second-instance sentences, 166 second-instance
utterances, 161-2 second-order principles, 142, 147 semantic analysis, 159-63, 216-23, // 227013 // semantic representation, 19-21, 30, 114-18, 208-9 // semanticism, 6, 19-20, 183, 232 // semantics, 2, 6 // truth-based, 80 speech act 200 // semantics (distinguished from // pragmatics), 5-7, 10, 12-15, 19-22, 24 // semantics, generative, 3, 192 sense, 24, 34, 43, 44, 80, 114-151 208 distinguished from force, see force sentence-radical, 115, 129?9 sigo, 155 signal, 156 // signalling function, see function silence, 139, 141 // sincerity condition, 164, 172, 180-1 // Slobin, D. I., 64 // social act, 206, 216 // social goal, 17, 27, 94, 104-5, 199 // social-distance scale, 126, 140-1, 144 // sociolinguistics, 4 // socio-pragmatics, 10, 11, i8nn, ?13, 80, 84, 231 sounding, 151?8 speech-orientation, 219, 221 speech-act, 14, 20, 22, 33, 177, 179, 198, 210,216 categories, 203 compound, 208 see also direct speech act and indirect speech act speech-act predicate, 208 speech-act rules (Searle), 44, 165, 171 speech-act theory, 34, 154, 156, 174, 175-81, 191, 195. 225-6 speech-act verb, 175, 196, 198-226, 227?5 // see also non-speech act verbs speech-reporting function, see function speech situation, 13-15, 20, 34, 94, // 131 // primary, 184-6 secondary, 185-6 Spielmann, R. W., 196?6 standing features, 12 style, 12 // Sympathy Maxim, 132, 138-9, 142, // 149 // synonymy, 2, 20, 220 // Tact Maxim, 104-28, 107-14, 119-27, 131, 133, 134, 136. 141, 150, 154, // 222 // text, 100, 200 // textlinguistics,
4, 232, 23307 // 250 // textual function, see function textual pragmatics, see pragmatics textual rhetoric, see rhetoric theory of action, 32 third-order principle, 145 Thorpe, W. H., 7 thought-reporting function, see function // trade-off between principles/maxims, see clash // Transparency Maxim, 66, 69 Transparency Principle, 77??, ni2 truth, 80, 145-6, 176 truthfulness, 9, 83, 91 // understatement, 143 see also litotes uninformativeness, 100-2 see also negative uninformativeness ulterior goal, 98 // INDEX // unmarked, 75-6 unreal propositions, 118 utterance, 14, i8ni6 // values, 9-10, 220, 225 verbs, see verbs under // addressee-oriented, assertive, causative, cognitive, commissive, content-descriptive, declarative, directive, expressive, illocutionary, imperative, impositive, non-speech act, performative, perlocutionary, phonically-descriptive, rogative, speech act // volitional predicate, 211-12 // Wittgenstein, L., 6, 225 // yes-no question, 116, 120, 166, 171 see also loaded questions

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