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Bibliografická citace

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0 (hodnocen0 x )
(9) Půjčeno:18x 
BK
Cambridge : Cambridge University, 1995

ISBN 0-521-40179-8
000088679
Rekat.
CONTENTS // 1 Modelling English 2 // PART I THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH 4 // 2 The origins of English 6 // 3 Old English 8 // • Early borrowings 8 • Runes 9 • The Old English corpus 10 // • Literary texts 12 • The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 14 // • Spelling 16 • Sounds 18 • Grammar 20 • Vocabulary 22 // • Late borrowings 24 • Dialects 28 // 4 Middle English 30 // • French and English 30 • The transition from Old English 32 // • The Middle English corpus 34 • Literary texts 36 // • Chaucer 38 • Spelling 40 • Sounds 42 • Grammar 44 // • Vocabulary 46 • Latin borrowings 48 • Dialects 50 // • Middle Scots 52 • The origins of Standard English 54 // 5 Early Modern English 56 // • Caxton 56 • Transitional texts 58 • Renaissance English 60 // • The inkhorn controversy 61 • Shakespeare 62 // • The King James Bible 64 • Spelling and regularization 66 // • Punctuation 68 • Sounds 69 • Grammar 70 • Vocabulary 72 // • The Academy debate 73 • Johnson 74 // 6 Modern English 76 // • Transition 76 • Grammatical trends 77 • Prescriptivism 78 // • American English 80 • Breaking the rules 84 // • Variety awareness 86 • Scientific language 87 // • Literary voices 88 • Dickens 89 • Recent trends 90 // 7 World English 92 // • The New World 92 • American dialects 93 • Canada 95 // • Black English Vernacular 96 • Australia 98 • New Zealand 99 // • South Africa 100 • South Asia 101 • West Africa 102
• East Africa 103 • South-East Asia and the South Pacific 104 // • A world language 106 • Numbers of speakers 108 // • Standard English 110 • The future of English 112 // • English threatened and as threat 114 // PART II ENGLISH VOCABULARY 116 // 8 The nature of the lexicon 118 // • Lexemes 118 • The size of the English lexicon 119 // • Abbreviations 120 • Proper names 122 // • The size of a person’s lexicon 123 // 9 The sources of the lexicon 124 // • Native vocabulary 124 • Foreign borrowings 126 // • Word-formation 128 • Unusual structures 130 // • Lexical creation 132 • Literary neologism 134 // 10 Etymology 136 // • Lexical history 136 • Semantic change 138 // • Folk etymology 139 • Place names 140 • Surnames 148 // • First names 150 • Nicknames 152 • Object names 154 // • Eponyms 155 // 11 The structure of the lexicon 156 // • Semantic structure 156 • Semantic fields 157 // • Dictionary and thesaurus 158 • Collocations 160 // • Lexical predictability 162 • Idioms 163 • Synonyms 164 // • Antonyms 165 • Hyponyms 166 • Incompatibility 167 // • Other sense relations 168 // 12 Lexical dimensions 170 // • Loaded vocabulary 170 • Taboo 172 • Swearing 173 // • Jargon 174 • Doublespeak 176 • Political correctness 177 // • Catch phrases 178 • Vogue words 179 • Slogans 180 // • Graffiti 181 »Slang 182 • Quotations 184 »Proverbs 184 // • Archaisms 185 • Cliches 186 • Last words
187 // PART III ENGLISH GRAMMAR 188 // 13 Grammatical mythology 190 // • The nature of grammar 190 // • Knowingvs knowing about 191 • Traditional grammar 192 // • Prescriptive grammar 194 • The 20th-century legacy 196 // • The main branches of grammar 197 // 14 The structure of words 198 // • Morphology 198 • Suffixation 198 • Adjectives 199 // • Nouns 200 • The apostrophe 203 • Pronouns 203 // • Verbs 204 // 15 Word classes 2O6 // • Parts of speech 206 • Traditional definitions 206 // • New classes 207 »Nouns 208 »Pronouns 210 // • Adjectives 211 • Adverbs 211 • Verbs 212 // • Prepositions 213 • Conjunctions 213 • Interjections 213 // 16 The structure of sentences 214 // • Spoken and written syntax 214 • Types of sentence 216 // • Sentence structure 217 • Sentence functions 218 // • Clause elements and types 220 • Phrases 222 // • Noun phrases 222 • Verb phrases 224 // • Multiple sentences 226 • Abbreviation 228 // • Disjuncts and comment clauses 229 • Reporting speech 230 // • Sentence information 231 • Beyond the sentence 232 // ÚSTREDNÍ KN1HOYNA FILOZOFICKÉ FAKULTY MASARYKOVY UNIVERZITY BRNO // ??f 1 // m-t-?? ?™ - ?-i- ??- // CONTENTS // PART IV SPOKEN AND WRITTEN ENGLISH 234 // 17 The sound system 236 // • Phonetics and phonology 236 • Vocal organs 236 // • Vowels 237 • Consonants 242 • Syllables 246 // • Connected speech 247 • Prosody 248 // • Sound symbolism 250 • Pronunciation
in practice 254 // 18 The writing system 256 // • Graphetics and graphology 257 • Typography 257 // • The alphabet 258 • Properties of letters 265 // • Letter frequency 265 • Letter distribution 266 // • Letter symbolism 268 • Analysing handwriting 269 // • Graphetic variety 270 • Spelling 272 // • Sources of irregularity 274 • Spelling reform 276 // • Punctuation 278 • The development of the writing system 280 // PART V USING ENGLISH 284 // 19 Varieties of discourse 286 // • Structure vs use 286 • Pragmatic issues 286 // • The nature of discourse 287 • Microlinguistic studies 288 // • Texts and varieties 290 • Speech vs writing 291 // • Mixed medium 292 • Monologue and dialogue 294 // 20 Regional variation 298 // • Accent and dialect 298 • International and intranational 299 // • A day in the life of the language 300 // • American and British English 306 • American dialects 312 // • British dialects 318 • Scotland 328 »Wales 334 // • Ireland 336 • Canada 340 • Caribbean 344 // • Pidgins and creoles 346 • Australia 350 // • New Zealand 354 • South Africa 356 • New Englishes 358 // 21 Social variation 364 // • Sociolinguistic perspective 364 • Received Pronunciation 365 // • Prescriptive attitudes 366 • Gender 368 • Occupation 370 // • Religion 371 »Science 372 »Law 374 • Plain English 377 // • Politics 378 • News media 380 • Journalism 382 // • Broadcasting 384 • Weather forecasting
385 // • Sports commentary 386 • Advertising 388 // • Restricted varieties 390 • New varieties 392 // 22 Personal variation 394 // • Individual differences 394 • Deviance 395 // • Word games 396 • Rule-breaking varieties 400 // • The edges of language 403 • Jokes and puns 404 // • Comic alphabets 407 • Variety humour 410 // • Literary freedom 412 • Phonetics and phonology 414 // • Graphetics and graphology 416 • Grammar and lexicon 418 // • Discourse and variety 420 • Stylometry 423 // PART VI LEARNING ABOUT ENGLISH 424 // 23 Learning English as a mother tongue 426 // • Child language acquisition 426 • Literacy 427 // • Grammatical development 428 // • Early words and sounds 430 • Reading and writing 432 // • Insufficient language 434 • Language disability 434 // 24 New ways of studying English 436 // • Technological revolution 436 • Corpus studies 438 // • National and international corpora 440 • Dictionaries 442 // • Innovations 444 • Sources and resources 446 // APPENDICES 447 // I Glossary 448 // II Special symbols and abbreviations 461 // III References 462 // IV Further reading 467 // V Index of linguistic items 470 // VI Index of authors and personalities 472 // VII Index of topics 475 // Acknowledgements 486

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