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Bibliografická citace

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BK
Kniha pro děti, mládež
Příručka
Essex : Longman, 1996

objednat
ISBN 0-582-05971-2
000105252
Rekat.
CONTENTS : Preface // 1 The English language // 2 A general framework // 3 Verbs and auxiliaries // 4 The semantics of the verb phrase // 5 Nouns and determiners // 6 Pronouns // 7 Adjectives and adverbs // 8 The semantics and grammar of adverbials // 9 Prepositions and prepositional phrases Í0 The simple sentence // 11 Sentence types and discourse functions // 12 Pro-forms and ellipsis // 13 Coordination // 14 The complex sentence // 15 Syntactic and semantic functions of subordinate clauses // 16 Complementation of verbs and adjectives // 17 The noun phrase // 18 Theme, focus, and information processing // 19 From sentence to text Bibliography
INDEX : A-?adverbial a-?article (indefinite) a-words 7.3 absolute clause 15.34 absolute comparison 7.39 abstract adjectival head 7.13 abstract noun 5.1, 21; 17.23 accent (prosodic)-?stress accent (regional) 1.12 acceptability 1.16 accidence -? inflection accusative-?case active/passive 3.25/; 18.22 address-?vocative // adjective 2.6;7.1-26, 32, 38-45; 16.38-41; 17.29 adjunct 8.13-31; 10.6; 16.13, 26; see also adverbial // adverb 2.6; 1.2/, 20, 27, 31 0, 44/; 8.10 and other word classes 7.2/ 28-30 particle 16.2-4, 7, 9 phrase 2.4; 8.10, 33 // adverbial 2.3; 8 passim-, 10.1-4, 6/; 15.13-35; 19.22-25 // affected role 10.9/ agent // adverbial 8.28 animate/inanimate 9.13 agentive role 3.25/; 9.13; 10.9; 18.35 agreement -?concord all 5.8; 6.24 // AmE- American English American English 1.10 amplifier 7.18; 8.37 article (indefinite) analysis, multiple 10.7n; 16.5 anaphora 5.14; 6.8/ 19; 12.2, 18; 19.16, 19 apposition; concord; coordination animals-?gender animate-?agent, gender antecedent 12.3; see also anaphora, cataphora anticipatory subject-?// antithetic conjunct 8.44 any 5.6; 6.25-27; 10.37 apostrophe- contraction; genitive // appended-?clause; coordination apposition 10.22; 17.27 article // definite 5.11-14,28/ indefinite 5.15/ zero 5.17-21 // as 9.3n; 15.29/ 36/; 17.10; 19.21 // aspect 4.7-12; 17.14; 19.11-14 // assertive and nonassertive forms 2.11; 6.25-28; // 10.37 // asyndetic coordination 13.1; 19.2,26 attachment rule 15.34 attitude-?varieties of English altitudinal dis junct-?content disjunct altitudinal past 4.6, 9 attraction-?concord attribute 10.9; 16.12, 25 attributive-?adjective aux-> auxiliary // auxiliary 3.11-18; 4/?ass/m; 10.41; 14.21 // backshifting 14.18 // backward span-?duration // bare existential 18.32n // bare infinitive-nnfinitive // basis-+comparison // be 3.13; 18.18-20, 30-33 // being, verbs of 4.11 // benefacti ve-?object (indirect) // binomials 13.26n //
block language 11.22 // bodily sensation, verbs of 4.11 // both 5.8; 6.24 // BrE-> British English // British English 1.10 // but 9.15; 15.25; see a/so coordination // C-?complement calling-?vocative can 3.1 If, 16; 4.22; 10.41 Canadian English 1.10 cardinal numerals 6.28n careful-?formal Caribbean English 1.11 case 5.48-55; 6.6/ // cataphora 5.14; 6.8/ 19; 12.2, 18; 19.16/ catenative 3.18n causative 10.1 On; 16.27-29 // 486 Index // cause 8.6; 15.26 cause and purpose 9.12 causer, external 10.10 central-?pronoun circumstance 15.26 citation 17.26n clause 2.4; 10.1-4; 14.1/ appended 12.23 coordinate 13.18 elements 2.3; 8.1, 13; 10.5-18 elliptical 12.20-23 // finite 14.3; 16.17-22, 33-35, 39; 17.5-13 nonfinite 14.3-5; 15.34/; 16.23, 27-30, 36/, 40/; 17.14-18 subordinate 14.1/ verbless 14.3, 6; 15.12, 34/ cleft sentence 18.18/ pseudo- 18.20 closed class 2.6 closed condition-condition code-?operator cognate object 10.15 // cognition, verbs of 4.11; 10.11; 14,18n; 16.18 coherence/cohesion 19.2 collective noun 5.43-45; 10.21 colloquial -?informal colour adjectives 7.26; 13.26; 17.41 combinatory coordination 13.22,25 command -?directi ve comment 18.5n comment clause 15.32 common case-case common gender->gender communication, verbs of 4.4; 8.41 communicative dynamism 18.2 comp-element-?comparative clauses comparative clauses 15.36-42; 17.10 comparison clauses 15.29; 19.21 comparison of adjective and adverbs 7.39-44 compatibility 19.24 complement 2.3; 10.5, 10; 16.12,25 prepositional 9.1 // complementation of adjectives 16.38-41 complementation of verbs 16.2-37 complex transitive 16.24-30, 37 concession 8.6, 30, 44; 9.15; 15.21 concord 5.45; 10.19-28 concrete noun
5.1 condition 8.6,41; 15.17-20 conditional-concessive clause 15.22/ conducive question 11.4-7,12/ conjoin(t)-?coordination conjunct 8.43-45; 19.24/ conjunction 2.6; 13.1-16; 14.7-9 content disjunct 8.42 // context 19.1/ // contingency 7.15; 8.6; 15.15n // continuous-?aspect // contraction 3.1 In, 13-16 // contrast 8.44; 15.24; 19.24/ // coordination 13.1-10; 19.26-29 // coordinator-+conjunction // copula 10.3; 16.12/ // coreference 12.3; 19.15 // correlative 8.45; 13.14/; 14.8; 15.29n, 30,42 // could 3.11/, 16; 4.22, 30-32, 34; 10.41; 14.21 // countability 5.1/ 17, 21, 35-44 // courtesy subjunct 8.34 // current attribute 10.9; 16.12, 25 // dangling participle 15.34 // dare 3.17 // dative-?case // declarative sentence 11.1 // deferred preposition 9.2; 11.9; 17.8 // defining-?restrictive/nonrestrictive meaning // definite-?article // degree 8.9 // deictic 6.20 // deletion-?ellipsis // demonstrative 5.4; 6.19/; 19.15/, 18 denial 10.39n // denominai adjective 7.21, 26; 17.40/ // deontic 4.2In // dependent -?clause // descriptive genitive-?case // destination-?goal // determiner 5.3-34; 19.15, 18 // deverbal noun 17.23 // dialect 1.7 // dialogue 19.3 If // dimension 9.4 // direct object-?object // direct speech 14.17-22 // direction 8.16-18; 9.5 // directive 11.1, 15-19; 19.36 // discontinuous construction 7.8n, 9; 17.42/; // 18.27/ // discourse 8.43/; 11 passim; 19 passim disjunct 8.40-42; 18.3; 19.22-25 distance 8.16-18 ditransitive 10.3; 16.31-37 do 3.15; fl.19; 12.6-8, 12f; 18.36 double genitive 5.55 double negative 10.37n, 41n downtoner 7.18; 8.37 dual gender 5.45/ dual number 5.35n; 6.21 dummy operator 3.11 duration 4.10-12; 8.3, 21/ 9.10f // Index 487 // dynamic 2.8; 4.2, 11; 7.23 dynamism, communicative 18.2 // E (position) 8.11 each 5.5; 6.22-4, 27/ echo question 11.14 // -ed participle 3.2/ 9, 20; 14.4; 15.34/; 16.30; // 17.15, 32/ effect--cause effected object 10.15 either 5.5; 6.25-27
element 2.3; 8.1, 13; 10.1, 4-7 ellipsis 12.14-23; 19.5, 15-17 emotive adjective 14.14; 16.39/ emphasis 18.6-13 emotive 18.36? emphasizer 7.18; 8.36 enclitic 10.33 end-focus 18.5/ end position 8.11 end-weight 18.5n enumerative conjunct 8.44 epistemic 4.2In eventive role 10.13, 16 every 5.5; 6.22/, 25 exception 9.15; 15.25 exclamation 7.16; 11.1, 12,20; 15.6 exclusive we 6.10; 19.20 existential 18.30-36 experiencer 10.11 explicitness 17.5 extraposition 18.23/ extrinsic 4.21 // familiar-Mnformal // few 5.10; 6.26/ // final position 8.11; 18.2-5 // finite 3.3, 19; see also clause // focus 18.5-12 // focusing subjunct 8.38/ // for 13.3; see also conjunction, preposition // formulaic subjunctive 3.24; 11.21 // fractions 6.28n // frequency 8.23/ // fronting 18.14/ // function words 2.6 // future 4.13-20 // gapping 13.29 gender 5.45-47; 6.4 generic 5.22-24 // genitive 5.48-55; 6.6, 16; 17.26, 34 gerund 15.1 On; 17.23n get 3.25n; 10.2 given/new 18.4 // goal 8.2, 17/; 9.4/ gradability 7.1 gradience 10.7n; 13.3 grammar 1.2-5 grammatical-? acceptable grammatical words 2.6 group genitive->genitive // habitual 4.3 have 3.14; 18.36 Hiberno-English 1.11 historic present 4.4; 19.14 humangender hypercorrect 1.5 hypernym 19.2 // hypothetical meaning 3.24; 4.31; 14.12/; 16.20, 23 // /(position) 8.11 // imperative 3.3; 11.1; 15-19 // inanimategender // inclusive w 6.10; 19.20 // indefinite-particle; pronoun // independent -?clause // indicative 3.19 // indirect object- object // indirect speech 14.17-22 // inferential conjunct 8.44 // infinitive 3.3, 20/; 8.1 In; 14.4/; 15.9, 11,34,41/; // 16.23, 27/; 36/; 17.16-18 inflection 3.2, 4-9; 5.48; 6.2/ 6/; 7.1, 39-44 informal 1.15 // information processing 18 passim; 19.40-42 ~ing participle 3.3/20; 14.4; 15.34/; 16.23,29,41; // 17.14, 30/ inherent-?adjective initial position 8.11 initiator 7.29 //
instrumental 8.4, 28; 9.13; 10.10 intellectual state-?cognition intensification 7.18, 32-35; 8.37; see also // emphasis intention 4.27 interjection 11.22n // interrogative 11.1; w also pronoun; question intonation 2.15; 18.3-14; 19.30-32 intransitive 10.3; 16.11 intrinsic 4.21 // inversion 3.11; 11.3; 10; 18.14-17 Irish English 1.11 irregular comparison 7.41, 44 irregular plurals 5.37-42 irregular verbs 3.2, 9/ it 6.9; 10.14; 18.18,23/; 19.17 item subjunct 8.35 // 488 Index // Lallans Scots 1.11 language names 5.33/; 7.12 let (’s) 11.17/ lexical connection 19.2 like 15.29 // limiting-*restrictive/nonrestrictive meaning // linking verb->copula // listing conjunct 8.44 // little 5.10; 6.26/ // locative 9.4-7; 10.13, 15 // ?/(position) 8.11 main-»clause // mandative subjunctive 3.24 // manner 8.4, 27;9.14n; 15.29 // marked/unmarked 2.7; 7.45; 10.19n // mass-»countability // matrix-»clause // may 3.11/ 16; 4.23, 34; 10.41 // means 8.4, 28; 9.13 // measure 6.26/; 7.45; 8.16, 21/; 9.10/’; 10.7n // medial position 8.11 // medium 1.14 // mental state-»cognition // metalinguistic comment 8.41 // middle verb 10.7n // might 3.11/, 16; 4.23, 29, 31/ 34; 10.41; 14.21 modal-»auxiliary modality 4.21; 8.7, 36 // modification 6.11; 7.7-9, 17-21, 26, 32-36; 9.16; 17 passim // momentary verbs 4.11, 35 monotransitive 10.3; 16.14-23 motion 9.7 // multiple analysis 10.7n; 16.5 // multiple modification 17.25/ 36-43 // multiplier 5.9 // multi-word verb 16.2-10 // must 3.11/ 16; 4.24/ 26, 29, 34; 10.41; 14.21 // names 5.25-34 // narrow orientation subjunct 8.35-39 necessity 4.21, 24/ 34 ??/3.17; 4.25 // negation 2.10; 10.33-41; 11.5, 18; 14.23 // neither 5.5; 6.25-27; 13.14/ // new/given 18.4 // New Zealand English 1.11 // nominal expression 12.5; 13.25n; see also noun // nominal clause 15.2-12 // nominal relative clause 15.7/ // nominalization 17.23 // nominative -»case // nonassertive -» assertive //
noncount-»countability // nonfinite 3.3, 19/; 4.35; w ?/? clause nonrestricti ve -? restrictive nonstandard 1.8 ???-»concord; coordination ??/-» negation noun 2.6; 5.1, 25-55 clause-»nominal clause phrase 17 passim., see also nominal expression  ’/-?negation nucleus 2.15 // number 3.3, 13; 5.35-44; 6.5; 10.19-26, 28 numeral 6.28n // ?-»object // object 2.3; 10.3, 5, 7, 9, 15-17; 16.14-20, 22-37 objective-» case obligation 4.21, 24-26, 34 obligatory element 8.13; 10.1,3-7 of and the genitive-»genitive omission-»ellipsis one 6.12, 22/ 28; 12.5 onset 2.15 open class 2.6 open condition-»condition operator 2.10; 3.11 opinion, verbs expressing 14.23 optative 3.24; 11.21 or-»apposition; concord; coordination order-»extraposition; fronting; inversion; position // ordinal numerals 6.28n // ought 3.17; 4.26, 29, 34; 10.41; 14.21 // pairs and triads 13.27n; 19.28 // paragraph 19.33 // parenthetic 15.32 // part of speech-»word class // participant relations 19.38/ // participant roles 10.8-18 // participial adjective 7.5-6; 17.30-33 // participle-»-cí/; -ing // particle 16.2 // partitive 5.2; 6.25-28 // passage 9.7 // passive 3.25/; 18.22 // past-»tense // patient-»affected // pendant participle 15.34 // perception, verbs of 4.11; 16.28/ // perfect-»aspect // performative verbs 4.3 // permanent vs temporary 17.4 // permission 4.21-23, 29, 32, 34 // person 3.3, 13; 6.3; see also concord; gender // personal pronoun-»pronoun // Index 489 // phrasal prepositional verb 16.2,9 phrasal verb 16.2-4, 7, 16 phrase 2.4 pitch 2.15 // place 7.36; 8.16-18; 9.5/; 15.16; 19.3-6; see also space // place names 5.32-34 pluperfect 4.9 plural-?number polysyndetic coordination 13.1 position, meaning 7.36/; 8.16; 9.5/’ position of adjectives 7.7-9, 17-22 in sequence 7.26; 17.40/ position of modifying adverbs 7.32-36 position of adverbials 8.11 in sequence 8.18, 26, 31 positioner subject 10.12
possessi ve-?pronoun; genitive possibility 4.21-23, 29/, 32, 34 postdeterminer 5.10 postmodification-?modification postponement 18.21-28 predeterminer 5.7-9 predicate 2.2; 12.7/ 12, 20; 13.19/ predication 2.10; 8.14; 12.7/, 12, 20; 13.19/; 18.15, 20 // prediction 4.21, 27-30, 34 preference 15.31 premodification-?modification preposition 2.6; 9 passim prepositional phrase 8.10; 9 passim prepositional verb 16.2, 5-8, 16, 32, 34 prescriptivism 1.5 present-?tense primary verb 3.1, 13-15 principal parts of verb 3.9/ private and public verbs 16.18 process adverbials 8.4, 27/ process verbs 4.11 // pro-forms 2.9, 6 passim, 12.1-13; 19.5, 15, 20 progressive-?aspect pronoun 2.6; 6 passim’, 19.15, 20 central 6.2 indefinite 6.21-28 interrogative 6.18 possessive 6.16 reflexive 6.13-15 relative 6.17; 17.5-9 see also demonstrative; determiner prop-*// // proper nouns 5.1,25-34 proportional clause 15.30 prosody 2.12-15; 18.3-13; 19.30 3,. 4! provenance adjectives 7.24 proximity-?concord // pseudo-cleft 18.20 pseudo-coordination 13.31 public and private verbs 16.18 punctual verbs 4.11 punctuation 19.30, 33f purpose 8.6, 30; 9.12; 15.27 putative meaning 15.27f putative sAom/c/ 14.14 // quality/quantity 5.2; 6.25-28 quasi-coordination 13.32 question 2.10; 11.1-14; 14.20; 15.4/; 16.22; 19.35-37 // reaction signal 7.29; 8.34n, 36n; 19.23, 28 reason 8.6, 30; 9.12; 15.26 Received Pronunciation 1.12 recipient role 9.12; 10.9, 11 reciprocal pronoun use 6.28n recoverability 12.2, 16-18; 14.5/; 15.34/; 17.1416; 19.5, 15/21 reflexive-?pronoun regional English 1.7 reinforcement 18.38 relative clause 17.1-17 relative pronoun 6.17; 17.5-9 repetition 13.31; 18.38 replacive conjunct 8.44 reported speech 14.17-22 reporting clause 14.17 respect 8.5, 29; 9.15 restrictive item 7.19; 8.7, 38/ restrictive/nonrestrictive meaning 7.17n; 17.3, 5-13 // result 8.6; 16.28 resultant role 10.15 resulting attribute 10.9; 16.12
retrospective verbs 16.23 rheme 18.5n // rhetorical conditional clause 15.20 // rhetorical question 11.13; 19.37 // rhythm 2.14 // root modality 4.2In // rules of grammar 1.3-5 // S-> subject // scope-?negation // Scots English 1.11 // segregatory coordination 13.22-25 // semi-auxiliary 3.18 // sentence 2.2; see also clause // sentential relative clause 15.33; 17.12 // sequence-?position // shall 3.11/, 16; 4.28-30, 34; 10.41 // should 3.11/, 16; 4.26, 29/ 33/; 10.41; 14.14, 21 // 490 Index // similarity clause 15.29 singular-Hiumber social variation 1.8 // 50 7.28, 39; 8.44; 12.7-13; 13.7, 25n; 15.27/, 30, 37n, 42; 19.19, 27 some 5.6, 6.25-27; 10.37 source 8.2, 16/; 9.4f South African English 1.11 space 8.2, 16-18; 9.4-7; 10.6, 15; 5cc 0/50 place span-»duration specific reference 5.11-21 split infinitive 8.1 ln stance verbs 4.11 Standard English 1.8-12 statai passive 3.25n state-»aspect; tense Stative 2.8; 4.2, 11; 7.23 stimulus preposition 9.13 stranding-»deferred stress 2.13
structural compensation 18.29 structure words 2.6 style disjunct 8.40/ suasive verbs 16.19 subject 2.3; 10.7, 9-14 subjective-»case subjunct 8.32-39 subjunctive 3.23/ 14.13 subordination 14.1-10; 19.26-29 subordinator-»conjunction substitution-»pro-form such 5.7n; 15.42; 17.10 summative conjunct 8.44 superlative 7.39-44 superordinate 14.1 supplementive clause 15.35 syndetic coordination 13.1 // tag 11.6; 18.38 temporal-?time / // temporary vs permanent 17.4 tense 4.1, 3-6, 13-20, 29-30; 19.11-14; see also time text 19.1 // /Ac-»article (definite) theme 18.5 // time 7.36/ 8.3, 19-26, 35; 9.9-11; 10.13; 15.14/ 16.13; 19.7-14; see also tense tone unit 2.15; 18.3 topic/comment 18.5n transferred negation 14.23 transition verbs 4.11 transitional conjuncts 8.44 transitive 10.3; 16.14—37 triads 19.28 // unattached participle 15.34 uncountable-+countability universal-»pronoun (indefinite) unmarked-»marked unreal -»condition used to 3.17 // V-»verb // varieties of English 1.6-15 verb 2.6; 3.1-3, 9/ 19-22; 10.2/ verbless-»clause viewpoint subjunct 8.33 vocative 10.31/ 18.3; 19.39 voice 3.25/ 18.22 volition 4.21, 27-29, 32, 34 // wc 6.10; 19.20 // wide orientation subjunct 8.33/ // will 3.11/, 16; 4.14, 18, 21, 27, 2% 32, 34; 10.41 // word classes 2.6 // would 3.11/, 16; 4.21,27, 29-34; 10.41; 14.21 zero-»article; nominal clause; relative clause
Contents // Preface // 1 The English language // 2 A general framework // 3 Verbs and auxiliaries // 4 The semantics of the verb phrase // 5 Nouns and determiners // 6 Pronouns // 7 Adjectives and adverbs // 8 The semantics and grammar of adverbials // 9 Prepositions and prepositional phrases Í0 The simple sentence // 11 Sentence types and discourse functions // 12 Pro-forms and ellipsis // 13 Coordination // 14 The complex sentence // 15 Syntactic and semantic functions of subordinate clauses // 16 Complementation of verbs and adjectives // 17 The noun phrase // 18 Theme, focus, and information processing // 19 From sentence to text Bibliography // Index // v // 1 // 11 // 24 // 47 // 70 // 108 // 129 // 158 // 188 // 204 // 231 // 247 // 262 // 283 // 304 // 336 // 363 // 394 // 434 // 476 // 485 // Index // References are to section numbers and section notes (‘n’). // Cross-reference is indicated by an arrow. // A-?adverbial a-?article (indefinite) a-words 7.3 absolute clause 15.34 absolute comparison 7.39 abstract adjectival head 7.13 abstract noun 5.1, 21; 17.23 accent (prosodic)-?stress accent (regional) 1.12 acceptability 1.16 accidence -? inflection accusative-?case active/passive 3.25/; 18.22 address-?vocative // adjective 2.6;7.1-26, 32, 38-45; 16.38-41; 17.29 adjunct 8.13-31; 10.6; 16.13, 26; see also adverbial // adverb 2.6; 1.2/, 20, 27, 31 0, 44/; 8.10 and other word classes 7.2/ 28-30 particle 16.2-4, 7, 9 phrase 2.4; 8.10, 33 // adverbial 2.3; 8 passim-, 10.1-4,
6/; 15.13-35; 19.22-25 // affected role 10.9/ agent // adverbial 8.28 animate/inanimate 9.13 agentive role 3.25/; 9.13; 10.9; 18.35 agreement -?concord all 5.8; 6.24 // AmE- American English American English 1.10 amplifier 7.18; 8.37 article (indefinite) analysis, multiple 10.7n; 16.5 anaphora 5.14; 6.8/ 19; 12.2, 18; 19.16, 19 apposition; concord; coordination animals-?gender animate-?agent, gender antecedent 12.3; see also anaphora, cataphora anticipatory subject-?// antithetic conjunct 8.44 any 5.6; 6.25-27; 10.37 apostrophe- contraction; genitive // appended-?clause; coordination apposition 10.22; 17.27 article // definite 5.11-14,28/ indefinite 5.15/ zero 5.17-21 // as 9.3n; 15.29/ 36/; 17.10; 19.21 // aspect 4.7-12; 17.14; 19.11-14 // assertive and nonassertive forms 2.11; 6.25-28; // 10.37 // asyndetic coordination 13.1; 19.2,26 attachment rule 15.34 attitude-?varieties of English altitudinal dis junct-?content disjunct altitudinal past 4.6, 9 attraction-?concord attribute 10.9; 16.12, 25 attributive-?adjective aux-> auxiliary // auxiliary 3.11-18; 4/?ass/m; 10.41; 14.21 // backshifting 14.18 // backward span-?duration // bare existential 18.32n // bare infinitive-nnfinitive // basis-+comparison // be 3.13; 18.18-20, 30-33 // being, verbs of 4.11 // benefacti ve-?object (indirect) // binomials 13.26n // block language 11.22 // bodily sensation, verbs of 4.11 // both 5.8; 6.24 // BrE-> British English // British English 1.10 // but 9.15; 15.25; see a/so coordination // C-?complement
calling-?vocative can 3.1 If, 16; 4.22; 10.41 Canadian English 1.10 cardinal numerals 6.28n careful-?formal Caribbean English 1.11 case 5.48-55; 6.6/ // cataphora 5.14; 6.8/ 19; 12.2, 18; 19.16/ catenative 3.18n causative 10.1 On; 16.27-29 // 486 Index // cause 8.6; 15.26 cause and purpose 9.12 causer, external 10.10 central-?pronoun circumstance 15.26 citation 17.26n clause 2.4; 10.1-4; 14.1/ appended 12.23 coordinate 13.18 elements 2.3; 8.1, 13; 10.5-18 elliptical 12.20-23 // finite 14.3; 16.17-22, 33-35, 39; 17.5-13 nonfinite 14.3-5; 15.34/; 16.23, 27-30, 36/, 40/; 17.14-18 subordinate 14.1/ verbless 14.3, 6; 15.12, 34/ cleft sentence 18.18/ pseudo- 18.20 closed class 2.6 closed condition-condition code-?operator cognate object 10.15 // cognition, verbs of 4.11; 10.11; 14,18n; 16.18 coherence/cohesion 19.2 collective noun 5.43-45; 10.21 colloquial -?informal colour adjectives 7.26; 13.26; 17.41 combinatory coordination 13.22,25 command -?directi ve comment 18.5n comment clause 15.32 common case-case common gender->gender communication, verbs of 4.4; 8.41 communicative dynamism 18.2 comp-element-?comparative clauses comparative clauses 15.36-42; 17.10 comparison clauses 15.29; 19.21 comparison of adjective and adverbs 7.39-44 compatibility 19.24 complement 2.3; 10.5, 10; 16.12,25 prepositional 9.1 // complementation of adjectives 16.38-41 complementation of verbs 16.2-37 complex transitive 16.24-30, 37 concession 8.6, 30, 44; 9.15; 15.21 concord 5.45; 10.19-28 concrete noun
5.1 condition 8.6,41; 15.17-20 conditional-concessive clause 15.22/ conducive question 11.4-7,12/ conjoin(t)-?coordination conjunct 8.43-45; 19.24/ conjunction 2.6; 13.1-16; 14.7-9 content disjunct 8.42 // context 19.1/ // contingency 7.15; 8.6; 15.15n // continuous-?aspect // contraction 3.1 In, 13-16 // contrast 8.44; 15.24; 19.24/ // coordination 13.1-10; 19.26-29 // coordinator-+conjunction // copula 10.3; 16.12/ // coreference 12.3; 19.15 // correlative 8.45; 13.14/; 14.8; 15.29n, 30,42 // could 3.11/, 16; 4.22, 30-32, 34; 10.41; 14.21 // countability 5.1/ 17, 21, 35-44 // courtesy subjunct 8.34 // current attribute 10.9; 16.12, 25 // dangling participle 15.34 // dare 3.17 // dative-?case // declarative sentence 11.1 // deferred preposition 9.2; 11.9; 17.8 // defining-?restrictive/nonrestrictive meaning // definite-?article // degree 8.9 // deictic 6.20 // deletion-?ellipsis // demonstrative 5.4; 6.19/; 19.15/, 18 denial 10.39n // denominai adjective 7.21, 26; 17.40/ // deontic 4.2In // dependent -?clause // descriptive genitive-?case // destination-?goal // determiner 5.3-34; 19.15, 18 // deverbal noun 17.23 // dialect 1.7 // dialogue 19.3 If // dimension 9.4 // direct object-?object // direct speech 14.17-22 // direction 8.16-18; 9.5 // directive 11.1, 15-19; 19.36 // discontinuous construction 7.8n, 9; 17.42/; // 18.27/ // discourse 8.43/; 11 passim; 19 passim disjunct 8.40-42; 18.3; 19.22-25 distance 8.16-18 ditransitive 10.3; 16.31-37 do 3.15; fl.19; 12.6-8, 12f; 18.36
double genitive 5.55 double negative 10.37n, 41n downtoner 7.18; 8.37 dual gender 5.45/ dual number 5.35n; 6.21 dummy operator 3.11 duration 4.10-12; 8.3, 21/ 9.10f // Index 487 // dynamic 2.8; 4.2, 11; 7.23 dynamism, communicative 18.2 // E (position) 8.11 each 5.5; 6.22-4, 27/ echo question 11.14 // -ed participle 3.2/ 9, 20; 14.4; 15.34/; 16.30; // 17.15, 32/ effect--cause effected object 10.15 either 5.5; 6.25-27; 13.14 element 2.3; 8.1, 13; 10.1, 4-7 ellipsis 12.14-23; 19.5, 15-17 emotive adjective 14.14; 16.39/ emphasis 18.6-13 emotive 18.36? emphasizer 7.18; 8.36 enclitic 10.33 end-focus 18.5/ end position 8.11 end-weight 18.5n enumerative conjunct 8.44 epistemic 4.2In eventive role 10.13, 16 every 5.5; 6.22/, 25 exception 9.15; 15.25 exclamation 7.16; 11.1, 12,20; 15.6 exclusive we 6.10; 19.20 existential 18.30-36 experiencer 10.11 explicitness 17.5 extraposition 18.23/ extrinsic 4.21 // familiar-Mnformal // few 5.10; 6.26/ // final position 8.11; 18.2-5 // finite 3.3, 19; see also clause // focus 18.5-12 // focusing subjunct 8.38/ // for 13.3; see also conjunction, preposition // formulaic subjunctive 3.24; 11.21 // fractions 6.28n // frequency 8.23/ // fronting 18.14/ // function words 2.6 // future 4.13-20 // gapping 13.29 gender 5.45-47; 6.4 generic 5.22-24 // genitive 5.48-55; 6.6, 16; 17.26, 34 gerund 15.1 On; 17.23n get 3.25n; 10.2 given/new 18.4 // goal 8.2, 17/; 9.4/ gradability 7.1 gradience 10.7n; 13.3 grammar 1.2-5 grammatical-? acceptable grammatical words
2.6 group genitive->genitive // habitual 4.3 have 3.14; 18.36 Hiberno-English 1.11 historic present 4.4; 19.14 humangender hypercorrect 1.5 hypernym 19.2 // hypothetical meaning 3.24; 4.31; 14.12/; 16.20, 23 // /(position) 8.11 // imperative 3.3; 11.1; 15-19 // inanimategender // inclusive w 6.10; 19.20 // indefinite-particle; pronoun // independent -?clause // indicative 3.19 // indirect object- object // indirect speech 14.17-22 // inferential conjunct 8.44 // infinitive 3.3, 20/; 8.1 In; 14.4/; 15.9, 11,34,41/; // 16.23, 27/; 36/; 17.16-18 inflection 3.2, 4-9; 5.48; 6.2/ 6/; 7.1, 39-44 informal 1.15 // information processing 18 passim; 19.40-42 ~ing participle 3.3/20; 14.4; 15.34/; 16.23,29,41; // 17.14, 30/ inherent-?adjective initial position 8.11 initiator 7.29 // instrumental 8.4, 28; 9.13; 10.10 intellectual state-?cognition intensification 7.18, 32-35; 8.37; see also // emphasis intention 4.27 interjection 11.22n // interrogative 11.1; w also pronoun; question intonation 2.15; 18.3-14; 19.30-32 intransitive 10.3; 16.11 intrinsic 4.21 // inversion 3.11; 11.3; 10; 18.14-17 Irish English 1.11 irregular comparison 7.41, 44 irregular plurals 5.37-42 irregular verbs 3.2, 9/ it 6.9; 10.14; 18.18,23/; 19.17 item subjunct 8.35 // 488 Index // Lallans Scots 1.11 language names 5.33/; 7.12 let (’s) 11.17/ lexical connection 19.2 like 15.29 // limiting-*restrictive/nonrestrictive meaning // linking verb->copula // listing conjunct 8.44 // little 5.10; 6.26/ // locative 9.4-7; 10.13,
15 // ?/(position) 8.11 main-»clause // mandative subjunctive 3.24 // manner 8.4, 27;9.14n; 15.29 // marked/unmarked 2.7; 7.45; 10.19n // mass-»countability // matrix-»clause // may 3.11/ 16; 4.23, 34; 10.41 // means 8.4, 28; 9.13 // measure 6.26/; 7.45; 8.16, 21/; 9.10/’; 10.7n // medial position 8.11 // medium 1.14 // mental state-»cognition // metalinguistic comment 8.41 // middle verb 10.7n // might 3.11/, 16; 4.23, 29, 31/ 34; 10.41; 14.21 modal-»auxiliary modality 4.21; 8.7, 36 // modification 6.11; 7.7-9, 17-21, 26, 32-36; 9.16; 17 passim // momentary verbs 4.11, 35 monotransitive 10.3; 16.14-23 motion 9.7 // multiple analysis 10.7n; 16.5 // multiple modification 17.25/ 36-43 // multiplier 5.9 // multi-word verb 16.2-10 // must 3.11/ 16; 4.24/ 26, 29, 34; 10.41; 14.21 // names 5.25-34 // narrow orientation subjunct 8.35-39 necessity 4.21, 24/ 34 ??/3.17; 4.25 // negation 2.10; 10.33-41; 11.5, 18; 14.23 // neither 5.5; 6.25-27; 13.14/ // new/given 18.4 // New Zealand English 1.11 // nominal expression 12.5; 13.25n; see also noun // nominal clause 15.2-12 // nominal relative clause 15.7/ // nominalization 17.23 // nominative -»case // nonassertive -» assertive // noncount-»countability // nonfinite 3.3, 19/; 4.35; w ?/? clause nonrestricti ve -? restrictive nonstandard 1.8 ???-»concord; coordination ??/-» negation noun 2.6; 5.1, 25-55 clause-»nominal clause phrase 17 passim., see also nominal expression  ’/-?negation nucleus 2.15 // number 3.3, 13; 5.35-44; 6.5;
10.19-26, 28 numeral 6.28n // ?-»object // object 2.3; 10.3, 5, 7, 9, 15-17; 16.14-20, 22-37 objective-» case obligation 4.21, 24-26, 34 obligatory element 8.13; 10.1,3-7 of and the genitive-»genitive omission-»ellipsis one 6.12, 22/ 28; 12.5 onset 2.15 open class 2.6 open condition-»condition operator 2.10; 3.11 opinion, verbs expressing 14.23 optative 3.24; 11.21 or-»apposition; concord; coordination order-»extraposition; fronting; inversion; position // ordinal numerals 6.28n // ought 3.17; 4.26, 29, 34; 10.41; 14.21 // pairs and triads 13.27n; 19.28 // paragraph 19.33 // parenthetic 15.32 // part of speech-»word class // participant relations 19.38/ // participant roles 10.8-18 // participial adjective 7.5-6; 17.30-33 // participle-»-cí/; -ing // particle 16.2 // partitive 5.2; 6.25-28 // passage 9.7 // passive 3.25/; 18.22 // past-»tense // patient-»affected // pendant participle 15.34 // perception, verbs of 4.11; 16.28/ // perfect-»aspect // performative verbs 4.3 // permanent vs temporary 17.4 // permission 4.21-23, 29, 32, 34 // person 3.3, 13; 6.3; see also concord; gender // personal pronoun-»pronoun // Index 489 // phrasal prepositional verb 16.2,9 phrasal verb 16.2-4, 7, 16 phrase 2.4 pitch 2.15 // place 7.36; 8.16-18; 9.5/; 15.16; 19.3-6; see also space // place names 5.32-34 pluperfect 4.9 plural-?number polysyndetic coordination 13.1 position, meaning 7.36/; 8.16; 9.5/’ position of adjectives 7.7-9, 17-22 in sequence 7.26; 17.40/ position of modifying
adverbs 7.32-36 position of adverbials 8.11 in sequence 8.18, 26, 31 positioner subject 10.12 possessi ve-?pronoun; genitive possibility 4.21-23, 29/, 32, 34 postdeterminer 5.10 postmodification-?modification postponement 18.21-28 predeterminer 5.7-9 predicate 2.2; 12.7/ 12, 20; 13.19/ predication 2.10; 8.14; 12.7/, 12, 20; 13.19/; 18.15, 20 // prediction 4.21, 27-30, 34 preference 15.31 premodification-?modification preposition 2.6; 9 passim prepositional phrase 8.10; 9 passim prepositional verb 16.2, 5-8, 16, 32, 34 prescriptivism 1.5 present-?tense primary verb 3.1, 13-15 principal parts of verb 3.9/ private and public verbs 16.18 process adverbials 8.4, 27/ process verbs 4.11 // pro-forms 2.9, 6 passim, 12.1-13; 19.5, 15, 20 progressive-?aspect pronoun 2.6; 6 passim’, 19.15, 20 central 6.2 indefinite 6.21-28 interrogative 6.18 possessive 6.16 reflexive 6.13-15 relative 6.17; 17.5-9 see also demonstrative; determiner prop-*// // proper nouns 5.1,25-34 proportional clause 15.30 prosody 2.12-15; 18.3-13; 19.30 3,. 4! provenance adjectives 7.24 proximity-?concord // pseudo-cleft 18.20 pseudo-coordination 13.31 public and private verbs 16.18 punctual verbs 4.11 punctuation 19.30, 33f purpose 8.6, 30; 9.12; 15.27 putative meaning 15.27f putative sAom/c/ 14.14 // quality/quantity 5.2; 6.25-28 quasi-coordination 13.32 question 2.10; 11.1-14; 14.20; 15.4/; 16.22; 19.35-37 // reaction signal 7.29; 8.34n, 36n; 19.23, 28 reason 8.6, 30; 9.12; 15.26 Received Pronunciation 1.12 recipient
role 9.12; 10.9, 11 reciprocal pronoun use 6.28n recoverability 12.2, 16-18; 14.5/; 15.34/; 17.1416; 19.5, 15/21 reflexive-?pronoun regional English 1.7 reinforcement 18.38 relative clause 17.1-17 relative pronoun 6.17; 17.5-9 repetition 13.31; 18.38 replacive conjunct 8.44 reported speech 14.17-22 reporting clause 14.17 respect 8.5, 29; 9.15 restrictive item 7.19; 8.7, 38/ restrictive/nonrestrictive meaning 7.17n; 17.3, 5-13 // result 8.6; 16.28 resultant role 10.15 resulting attribute 10.9; 16.12 retrospective verbs 16.23 rheme 18.5n // rhetorical conditional clause 15.20 // rhetorical question 11.13; 19.37 // rhythm 2.14 // root modality 4.2In // rules of grammar 1.3-5 // S-> subject // scope-?negation // Scots English 1.11 // segregatory coordination 13.22-25 // semi-auxiliary 3.18 // sentence 2.2; see also clause // sentential relative clause 15.33; 17.12 // sequence-?position // shall 3.11/, 16; 4.28-30, 34; 10.41 // should 3.11/, 16; 4.26, 29/ 33/; 10.41; 14.14, 21 // 490 Index // similarity clause 15.29 singular-Hiumber social variation 1.8 // 50 7.28, 39; 8.44; 12.7-13; 13.7, 25n; 15.27/, 30, 37n, 42; 19.19, 27 some 5.6, 6.25-27; 10.37 source 8.2, 16/; 9.4f South African English 1.11 space 8.2, 16-18; 9.4-7; 10.6, 15; 5cc 0/50 place span-»duration specific reference 5.11-21 split infinitive 8.1 ln stance verbs 4.11 Standard English 1.8-12 statai passive 3.25n state-»aspect; tense Stative 2.8; 4.2, 11; 7.23 stimulus preposition 9.13 stranding-»deferred stress 2.13
structural compensation 18.29 structure words 2.6 style disjunct 8.40/ suasive verbs 16.19 subject 2.3; 10.7, 9-14 subjective-»case subjunct 8.32-39 subjunctive 3.23/ 14.13 subordination 14.1-10; 19.26-29 subordinator-»conjunction substitution-»pro-form such 5.7n; 15.42; 17.10 summative conjunct 8.44 superlative 7.39-44 superordinate 14.1 supplementive clause 15.35 syndetic coordination 13.1 // tag 11.6; 18.38 temporal-?time / // temporary vs permanent 17.4 tense 4.1, 3-6, 13-20, 29-30; 19.11-14; see also time text 19.1 // /Ac-»article (definite) theme 18.5 // time 7.36/ 8.3, 19-26, 35; 9.9-11; 10.13; 15.14/ 16.13; 19.7-14; see also tense tone unit 2.15; 18.3 topic/comment 18.5n transferred negation 14.23 transition verbs 4.11 transitional conjuncts 8.44 transitive 10.3; 16.14—37 triads 19.28 // unattached participle 15.34 uncountable-+countability universal-»pronoun (indefinite) unmarked-»marked unreal -»condition used to 3.17 // V-»verb // varieties of English 1.6-15 verb 2.6; 3.1-3, 9/ 19-22; 10.2/ verbless-»clause viewpoint subjunct 8.33 vocative 10.31/ 18.3; 19.39 voice 3.25/ 18.22 volition 4.21, 27-29, 32, 34 // wc 6.10; 19.20 // wide orientation subjunct 8.33/ // will 3.11/, 16; 4.14, 18, 21, 27, 2% 32, 34; 10.41 // word classes 2.6 // would 3.11/, 16; 4.21,27, 29-34; 10.41; 14.21 zero-»article; nominal clause; relative clause

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