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Bibliografická citace

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BK
1st publ.
Cambridge : Cambridge University, 1997
xxviii,713 s.

objednat
ISBN 0-521-49915-1 (brož.)
Obsahuje rejstříky.
Bibliografie: s. 676-702.
Lingvistika - skladba - studie
000109605
CONTENTS // List affigures x // List of tables xvi // Acknowledgments xix // Notes for instructors xxi // List of abbreviations xxiii // 1 The goals of linguistic theory 1 // 1.0 Introduction 1 // 1.1 Goals of linguistic theory 2 // 1.2 Explanation in linguistics 4 // 1.3 Contrasting perspectives on the goals of linguistic theory 8 // 1.4 Concluding remarks 15 // Further reading 16 // 2 Syntactic structure, I: simple clauses and noun phrases 17 // 2.0 Introduction 17 // 2.1 General theoretical issues 17 // 2.2 The layered structure of the clause in simple sentences 25 // 2.3 The layered structure of adpositional and noun phrases 52 // 2.4 Heads and headedness 67 // 2.5 Conclusion: the nature of morphosyntactic structure 69 // Further reading 75 // Exercises 76 // 3 Semantic representation, I: verbs and arguments 82 // 3.0 Introduction 82 // 3.1 A typology of states of affairs and their participants 82 // 3.2 The lexical representation of verbs and their arguments 90 // 3.3 Summary 128 // Further reading 129 // Exercises 130 // vii // Contents // 4 Semantic representation, II: macroroles, the lexicon // and noun phrases 139 // 4.0 Introduction 139 // 4.1 Semantic macroroles 139 // 4.2 Valence, transitivity and macrorole assignment 147 // 4.3 Lexical entries for verbs 154 // 4.4 The representation of adjuncts and operators 159 // 4.5 Linking syntactic and semantic representations // (a brief introduction) 172 // 4.6 Lexical rules 178 // 4.7 The semantic representation of nouns and
noun phrases 184 // 4.8 Summary 195 // Further reading 195 // Exercises 196 // 5 Information structure 199 // 5.0 Introduction 199 // 5.1 Focus structure 201 // 5.2 Focus types 206 // 5.3 The morphosyntactic coding of focus structure 210 // 5.4 The formal representation of focus structure 214 // 5.5 Focus structure and the scope of negation and quantification 219 // 5.6 Intrasentential pronominalization 223 // 5.7 Intersentential pronominalization 231 // 5.8 Syntactic templates, linking and focus structure 235 // Further reading 235 // Exercises 236 // 6 Grammatical relations 242 // 6.0 Introduction 242 // 6.1 Conceptions of grammatical relations 242 // 6.2 The cross-linguistic diversity of grammatical relations 250 // 6.3 A theory of grammatical relations 274 // 6.4 Discourse reference-tracking mechanisms and voice 285 // 6.5 Some typological issues 303 // Further reading 309 // Exercises 309 // 7 Linking syntax and semantics in simple sentences 317 // 7.0 Introduction 317 // 7.1 Semantic and syntactic representations: a brief review 320 // Conients // 7.2 The linking algorithms 324 // 7.3 Case marking, agreement and adposition assignment 352 // 7.4 The two phases of linking 384 // 7.5 Reflexivization 392 // 7.6 Focus structure, linearization and linking 417 // 7.7 Templates, constructions and linking 430 // Further reading 436 // Exercises 437 // 8 Syntactic structure, IE complex sentences and // noun phrases 441 // 8.0 Introduction 441 // 8.1 Theoretical issues 441 // 8.2 Levels
of juncture 442 // 8.3 Nexus relations 448 // 8.4 The interaction of nexus and juncture 454 // 8.5 Focus structure in complex sentences 484 // 8.6 The structure of complex noun phrases 492 // 8.7 Syntactic templates for complex sentences 505 // Further reading 507 // Exercises 508 // 9 Linking syntax and semantics in complex sentences 517 // 9.0 Introduction 517 // 9.1 Linking in clausal, core and nuclear junctures 517 // 9.2 Case marking in complex sentences 575 // 9.3 Linking in complex noun phrases 590 // 9.4 Reflexivization in complex sentences 604 // 9.5 Constraints on linking in WH-questions and related // constructions 615 // Further reading 634 // Exercises 634 // Epilog: the goals of linguistic theory revisited 640 // Notes 650 // References 676 // Index of languages 703 // Subject index 706 // INDEX OF LANGUAGES // Abkhaz 80 // Acehnese 255-60,266,269,273-6,278,292, 304-6,308,370,543-4,645,662 Alamblak 289 Amele 450-3,463-5 Archi 260 // Australian Aboriginal languages 191,658 Aztec, Classical 651 // Bambara 196-7,598,600-1,603-5,660 Bantu languages 289,292,332,437 Barai 99,110,313-16,457-9,469,530-4, 663,668 // Basque 104,118,303,308 Bats see Tsova-Tush Belhare 106,304,308,499,638 Bonggi 103 // Chepang 272 // Chichewa 248-9,332,337,384,386,584-5, 587,589,673 Chinook 651 Choctaw 35,305,666 Chuave 448-50,475-6,521 Circassian, West 124 Cree, Plains 305,374-6,437,438,659 Croatian 34-5,331,392-3,396,407-9, 413-14,416-17,523 // Danish 631,674 // Dyirbal 1-2,14,18,19-20,23-5,28,30-1,
63-4,67,70-3,142-3,176-7,213,246, 263-4,266-70,273-82,286,289-95,302. 336-8,343.345-6,356-9,376,386,392-6, 438-9,520,523,542-5,577,650-1,657, 665,672-3 // Enga 254-5,257,268-70,273-5,278, // 280-1,292,305-6,342,367,580-1,645, 666 // English 1, 14.18-19,20,23-4,26-7,29-30, 32-4,36-8.40-3,45,48-56,58-63,68,71, 73-6,79-80,86-90,94-112,116-28,130, 139-48,151-71,173-80,182-8,190-8, 206-10,213,215-22,224-30,232,234-6, 240-1,245,249-95,305,309-10,317-26, 334-9,343-4,346-7,349-52,376-87,390, 393,396,398-407,421-4,426-8,430, 432-5,437,442-9,453,455,459-60, 462-79,481-7,492-9,503-7,520-31, 537-41,543-52,554-7,559-65,567, 569-79,581,584-5,590-1,596-9,606, 608-10,615,617,621-3,626-33,644-8, 653,657-9,662,664-74 Eskimo, Greenlandic 64-7,301 // Fijian 135-6 Finnish 665 // Fore 305,448-50,475,521 French 58,98,108,110,179,206-12,338,351, 442-6,484,532-7,581-4,589-90,607-8, 634-5,661,665-6,671 // Georgian 90, 100, 104-5,110,112,179, // 181-2,186,367,438,586-7,590,645. // 659 // German 18,42-3,45-6,52,58-9,79-80, // 175.193,263,295,305,337,353-61,385, 397-8,400-1,415,498-500,523,607-8, 657,664-7,671 Germanic languages 153-4 // Hausa 105,186 Hebrew, Biblical 236 Hebrew, Modern 59,186,645 Hindi 364-5,367 Hixkaryana 43-4 Huichol 271 // Hungarian 236-7,418-19,422,424,585-9, 645,673 // 703 // Index of languages // Icelandic 29-30,35,38-9,68,76,79,94, 133-4,275,295.299,327-30,332-3, 343-4,346-7,356-63,393.396-8,400-1. 424,426-7,438,523,562-3,568-75, // 577-8,590,606,608,610,612-13,621,653, 664-6 // Indonesian
336,338,386,657 Ingush 299-300 // Italian 34,108,134-5,148-50,179,206-13, 216-19,239-40,331-2,386-7,392,396, 407-19.484,645.655,657 // Jakaltek (Jacaltec) 43,53-4,71-3,76,143, 249,284-5,300-1,342,363-4,367,369, // 438.498- 9,502,507,512-15,586-7,590, 595,607 // Japanese 32,37,40,48,50-1,71,76,79,99, 105-6,110,120,153,193,206-11,239-40, 334-5.389-91,585-7,589,644,653-5, 663,667-9,672 // Kabardian 124,301 // Kaluli 209,366-7,369-70,376,425.645, // 666 // Kannada 260,588-9 // Kewa 43,51-2,305,450,475-6,521 // Kinyarwanda 562 // Korean 77,118,153,209,304,308,455, 510-11,638,654-6,669,672 Kutenai 288-9,373-4,376,437 // Lahu 271,663 // Lakhota 14,23-6,27,28,30,33-5,61-3, 66-7,70-2,76,88-90,99,102-3,108,110, 123,143,153,173,179,181-3,191,301, 311-13,330-2,338,342-3,370-1,384-6, 388,393,395-6,423-5,429,476,482,484, 488-92,495-6,499-503,506,529,542-4, 598.600-3,605.615-21,623,626,631-2, 643.645,647-8,651.654.668,672,674 tango 295-8,305 Latin 158,295,393,658,665,673 // Malagasy 221-2,261,275,277-9,281-2,292, // 296.305.343.421.498- 9,501-2,507,568, 590-7,674 // Mandarin Chinese 58-60.62,106,108, // 153,207,211-12,219,221-2,231-3, // 260-3,273-5.305,333,385,442-6.456-7, 484,511-12,529-31,543-4,656,661-3, 670 // Manipuri 260 Marathi 396 // Martuthinera 290 // Mparntwe Arrernte 25,62,80,130-3,191, 305,367,476,658-9 // Newari 580-1 Niuean 562 // Nootka 28.455,475-6,670 Norwegian 396,404-5,611-14 Nunggubuyu 289 // PirahälOO, 105,110,179 Polish 34,645 Portuguese 356,385 // Qiang42,47,98, 110
Quechuan languages 43,305,499,579 Quechua, Ancash 637-8 Quechua, Bolivian 588-9 Quechua. Huallaga 211,539,579-80 // Romance languages 153,386,416,437,655 Russian 25,58,98,100,103-5,110,112,179, 181-2.263.305,308.385.393.420-2,657. 665 // Sama 176,249.279-82,292-3,298-9, 327-30.332-3,338.342,386,392,399, 422-4.432,434-6,542-4,552-4,586-7, 621,663-4 // Sanuma 79,136-8,305,586-7,668 Sesotho 212-13,215-16,424-5,484,632, 646,661 // Slavic languages 153,386 // Spanish 34.94. 305,331,356,385,494,653 // Tagalog 14,103,220-1.421,660 Tamil 656 // Tepehua 98-9,171-2,179,181-3,186, // 188-9,286-7,290-2,294,305,387-8.520, 523 // Thai 77-8,118 Tibetan, Classical 260 Tibetan, Modem 80,304,308,499 Tibeto-Burman languages 272-3,590 Toba Batak 77,239-40,310-11,421-2, 439-40,515-16,635-6 Tongan 123-4,660 Toura 213-14,669 // Tsova-Tush (Bats) 119-20,367,370-3,656 Turkish 44.51-2,79. 169-70,237-9.295.333. 418-19,421-2,424-7,447,460-1.469, // 474,583-4,590,615,645 Tzutujil 282-4,287,289-92,300,302,342 // 704 // Index of languages // Ute 298-9,392 // Yagua 80-1,98,110,179,181-2 // Warlpiri 80,245,263-70,273-6,278,280-1, Zapotec 289,305,634,645 // 292,305-6,367-9,645,663,666-7 Zuni 287,294 // 705 // SUBJECT INDEX // aboutness, pragmatic 203,627-9,633 absolutive case 20,119,123-4,263,363-70, passim // accusative case 19,263,353-63,419,425, 582-9,664-5, passim accusativity, syntactic 175-7,263-4,282, 305,317,326,542-3 acquisition, language 4,8,10-11,14, // 640-9 // logical problem of 10,675 activation
200-1,204-5,209,211,231.234, 290-1,327-8,664 actor see macroroles, semantic Actor-Undergoer Hierarchy 146,155-8, 175-7,281-2,317,326,658, passim adequacy, levels of descriptive 8 explanatory 9-10,14 observational 7-8,18 pragmatic 9,14 // psychological 9-10,13-14,340 typological 9,14-15,22,25,274 adjectives 28,56-8,68-9,125-6,195 adjuncts 27,31,60,159-63,192,228-9,321, 326,334-5,390-1,426-8,465-7,626, 642,668-9 // adpositional phrase, layered structure of 52-3,160-3 // adpositions 25-6,28-31,52-4,195.476, passim // assignment 158,177,186,190,326, 376-84,437 // nonpredicative 52-4,68,158,161,229, 324,376-83 // predicative 52-4,68,159-62,321,382-4, 464; adjunct 159, 162-3,334-5,341, 349-51,383,464; argument-adjunct 159-62,173-4,228-9,382-4,405-6, 413-14.611-13,659 adverbial clauses see subordinate clause // adverbials 27,29,95-7,120,162-71,195, 381-2,410-11,417,442,447,465, // 651 // affectedness 60,145,149,307-8,389, // 406 // agentivity 118-22,152,305-9,372-3,408, 412-13,536,587-9 // agreement 242,250-2,254-7,260,274-6, 296-8,300.326,331-2,352-65,367-71, 449-50,665 long-distance 362-3 // Aktionsart 91-H3,116,129,644, pass/m accomplishment 92-102,104-15,151-2, // 171-2,409 -11,413,430,529, passim achievement 92-7,102,104-10,151-2, 171-2,409-13,430,529, passim active accomplishment 100-2,108-12, 122-4,148-50,152,159-60,179-82, 301,355,416,422,434,665, passim activity 92-105,107-12,114-25,148-53, 159-60,171-2,179-82,301,355,416, 422,434,585-6,657,665, passim causative types 97-9,100-2,106-10,115,
172,179, 181-4,402,409-11,413,529, 607,668, passim // state 91-105,107-16,125-8,151-2,402, passim // tests for 93-7,100-2,129,654,655 animacy 141-3.156,212,305-8,309,342, 347-8,371,385-6,666 antipassive see voice applicatives 285.337-8,437 arbitrariness 69,653 // argument from the poverty of the stimulus 10,647,675 // arguments 25-8,642-3 inherent 123,149-50 semantic 25-8,37-8,90,113-16,139-47, 462,464,468.547,579-80,642,651 sharing 444,468, 539-40,610, 669 // 706 // syntactic 26-30,37-8,147-8,150,405, // 462,464,468,547,579-80,651 see also core arguments argument-adjunct see adpositions, predicative // argument structure see logical structure acquisition of 644 aspect // nominal 56-8,321 // verbal 40,45-51,57,76,94,171-2,364-5, 455-9,474,476,506,643-4,654-5,672, passim // assertion, pragmatic 201-9,219,649 Autolexical Syntax 12,653 // benefactive construction 162,382-4, // 413-16 // branching, direction of 70-1,653 // case marking 17-20,158.250,326,352-73, 436-7,664 // accusative pattern 263-4,352-68,575 active 257,370-3; fluid-S languages 370-3, 437; split-S languages 370-1,437 in complex sentences 533-4,575-89 domain 577-81 // ergative pattern 263-4,363-70,577 global 366,370 long-distance 17-20,362-3 split systems 363-70 Categorial Grammar 11 causation 121-2, 146,471,478-84,544, // 655 -6,671 see also Aktionsart causative construction 108,305,391,410, // 416,442-4,477,481,529,531-7,581-9, 607-8,671 // causative paraphrase lest 97-8,100-1,402, 668 // classifier, noun 58-9,289-90,457
clause 22-51,67-8,441-2,444-8,462-9,478, passim // layered structure of 25-51,69,76,164-71, 441-2,642; acquisition of 642-3 non-universal features of 23,35-40,70, 643 // universal features of 22-9,39-40,69,70, 642 // clause-linkage marker 470,476-7 (see also complementizer) // cleft construction 208-12,418-19,462,471, 595,661 // cognition 4, 11-14,641-3,649 initial endowment 641-2,649 // Subject index // Cognitive Grammar 12-14,52,56,236,247, 561,634 // communication 9,11-14,82,86,199,231,587 communication-and-cognition perspective 11-15,28,82,428,640,649 competence, linguistic see knowledge, linguistic // complement selection 482-3,671 complementation see subordinate clause complementizer 444-5,460.469-77,505, 632-3,669-70 (see also clause-linkage marker) // Completeness Constraint 325-6,351-2,525, 527,532,545,547-51,624,626,664, passim // Complex NP Constraint 615-17 complex sentences see juncture and nexus acquisition of 646-7 theories of 441-2,669 concreteness 21-2,651 conjunction 454,460,492,672 conjunction reduction 276-7,305,354-5, // 358,361,520-2,526,559-60 (see also topic chain) // constituent projection see projection grammar // construction 275-82,292-4,430-5,455,460, 521-2,669, passim // Construction Grammar 12-13,73,430-1, 441,469,640,654,669 control, obligatory 469,540-5,634.669 control construction 252-5,257-8,260, 274-8,280,305,540-60,570-1,608-10, 673 // controller see privileged syntactic argument converb 669 // Coordinate Structure Constraint 616 core 26-33,37,45-51,441-8,462,469,478,
642, passim // core arguments 26-30,32-3,38,147,390-1, 461-2,464, passim // direct 29-30,32-3,38,68,147,150,651, 653, passim // oblique 29,32-3,38,52,68,124,147, 150-1,651,653, passim cross-reference see agreement // dative case 143,191.268,270,295,300,302, 341,345,347,353-61,533-4,582-90, 665 // dative shift see macroroles, semantic: undergoer, variable linking // 707 // Subject index // definiteness 58,201,321,419,422,425, 500-1,600-2,631,660 dependent-marking languages adposition structure 52-3 clause structure 23,34-5,70-1,76,330-2 possessive N P structure 61-2,495 description 2-3,15 // determiners 56,58-9,61-3,67.476,488-90, 501 // direct discourse 469 directionals 42-3,45-7,49,51,455 discourse 11,14,199-201,230,234,236, 285-91,306.388-9,425.428-30,611, 626-7,672 // Discourse Representation Theory 672 double-marking languages 35,254,342, 666-7 // Empty Category Principle 674 equi-N P-deletion see control construction ergative case 20,119,123-4,263,363-73, 425,580-1,664 // ergativity, syntactic 175-7,246,249,282,305, 307,309,317,368.437,542-3 evidentials 42-4,46-51,76,211 exceptional case marking see matrix-coding constructions explanation 3-7 // criteria for 5-7,10,13-14,18,182-4,243, 356 // focus 200.202-17.230,234-6,252,307-8, 421-2,618-19,627-9,644,649 broad 206 // narrow 206,208-11,215,218-19,407, 418-21,520; marked 209-10,221-2, // 228,632-3; unmarked 209-10,632-3 predicate 206-8,210,213,215-20,224, 327-8,418-21,520,522-3,629 sentence 206-8,210-11,216,236.418-19 focus
domain 205-9,212-13,484-92,661 actual 212-13,215-18.224-9.424-5,484, 486,492,618.630 // potential 212-13,215-17,228.484-92, 618-26,628-33 // focus position, unmarked 209,225-7,229, 307,366,419,421.425 focus-sensitive elements 487-92 focus structure 201-17,219-23,366-7,644, 674-5 // influence on lexical choices 429-30 lexical influences on 630-1 projection see projection grammar // and word order 208,211-13,221,418-21, 437 // Functional Grammar (Dik) 11,13-15,46-7, 52,56,236,246,640,654,671 functional sentence perspective 199 functionalism French 12 // Prague School 3,12,16,199,203,221,234 St. Petersburg school 12 // Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar 11, 67,69,441,469,567,634,674 generative grammar 3,8-11,15,667 genitive case 303-4,308,356,665 gerund 455,462-3,538-9,547 Government and Binding Theory see Principles and Parameters Theory grammatical relations 140-4,151,175-6, // 242- 85,303,541-3,582 acquisition of 644-5 // behavioral properties 250,252-62,264-70 coding properties 250-2,254-7,259-60, 266-7 // configurational definitions 243-5,329,352 non-universality of 260,263,273-4,279, 309 // restricted neutralization 251-3,255, 259-60,265-6,268-9,273-5,279-81, 296,303-8,663 theories of 243-9,274-85,309 grammaticalization 280,484 // heads 67-9,190 // Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar 11, 13,393,401,441,469,567,634,654,667 head-marking languages 23-5,53-4,61-2, 253-4,330-2,370,601 adposition structure 53-4 clause structure 23-5,30,33-5,70-1,76, 173 // possessive NP structure
61-2 honorifics 651-2 hyperroles 657 // iconicity 480,482,671 identifiability 200-1,660 illocutionary force 41-2,46-51,58,72,76, 215.434.449-52,454,457,463-4,468, 475,485,488-2,520-2,524-5,539,661, 669-70 // immediate constituent analysis 23-5,63, // 243- 5,541-3 imperatives 292-3, 305-6 // 708 // Subject index // incorporation // noun (into verb) 65-7,123,150,301 verb (into noun) 61,495 individuation 56-8,421-2 infinitives 444-8,455,459-62,470-4,482-3, 494,539,547-52,670 information 199-202,660 information unit 206,215,485.660-1,671 instrumental case 295,345-6,586,588-9,665 intonation 35-7,39,42,201-2,204-5, // 208-11,215,219,225-6,228 Interclausal Relations Hierarchy 480-4,671 semantic hierarchy 478-81,508 syntactic hierarchy 477-8,480 interclausal semantic relations aspectual 472-3,479-81,483 causative see causation, causative construction // cognition 479-83 see also verb types conditional 479-81 indirect discourse 479-81 jussive 479-81,544-5,553,555-7 perception direct 473-4,479-81,571,671; // indirect 474,571; see also verb types propositional attitude 479-83 (see also verb types) // psych-action 479-84,547 purposive 125,383,479-81,483-4 (see also purposive constructions) temporal: non-overlapping 472-6,479, 670; non-overlapping + interval 479; overlapping 472-6,479,670; simultaneous 479-81 inverse constructions 288-9,373-6,437 island constraints see relative clauses, constraints on; topicalization, constraints on; questions, WH-: constraints on // juncture 442-8,455,468,476
(see also juncture-nexus combinations) clausal 442,447-8,463-9,476-7,492,517, 520-8,560,670 // core 125,169-70,226,442,444-8,455-7, 459-63,468,474,476-7,482-3,517-18, 537-81,608-11,671 nuclear 442-8,455-9,468,476-7,484, 517-18,529-37,607-8,671 sentential 469-70 // juncture-nexus combinations 454-5,507 clausal coordination 455,463-4,477,481 clausal cosubordination 455,463-5,477, // 481,520-4,670 // clausal subordination 455,464-7,481-3, 505-6 (see also subordinate clause) core coordination 455,457,460-1,471, 474,477,481-2,507,559,571 core cosubordination 455,457,460-1,477, 481-4,507,647 // core subordination 455,461-4,477,481, 505-6,537-9,610 (see also subordinate clause) // nuclear coordination 458,477,481,506 nuclear cosubordination 455,457-8,477, 481,483,506 // nuclear subordination 459,477,481,506 // knowledge, linguistic 4,8,9-11 // language, definition of 9,11 Language Acquisition Device 10-11,15, 641-2,647,649,675 // language faculty, autonomy of 10,640-1, 647,649 // left-detached position 36-7,60,166,169, // 171,214,223,228-30,326,334,426-8, 469-70,662,664,668-9 levels of syntactic representation 17-21,25, 65.75.245,362-3,650.662 lexical categories, universality of 28 lexical content, inherent 305-8,365-7,374, 376,666 // lexical decomposition 90-1,102-11,114, // 116,128-9,172,654-5 lexical phenomena vs. syntactic phenomena 389-92,667 // Lexical-Functional Grammar 11,13,21, 248-9,441,469,541,567,612,634,667, 673 // lexicon 69,73,154-8,172-3,177-84,389, passim // linear order
(precedence) 20,27,30-2, // 35-7,220,225,342,358-9,361,418-21, 663 // constituents 52,56,70-3,654 operators 49,51-2,56,59,63,71-3,653 linearization 418-21 linking in complex sentences 517-75 role of discourse pragmatics in 619-32 semantics -> syntax 525,529-36,538, 546-53,563-4,569-74,583; algorithm 518,623-4 // syntax -» semantics 525-6,529,532,535, 539,554-9,564-6,574-5,609-10; algorithm 518-20,558-9,565-6, 609-10,624-6 // 709 // Subjeci index // linking in derived nominals 186-8 linking in simple clauses 172-8,290-1, // 317- 52 // acquisition of 645-6 marked 328-9,343-4 role of discourse pragmatics in 285-7, 290-2,327-8,423-9 // semantics —> syntax 172-8,290-1,326-39, 423-8,431,668-9; algorithm 326,423, 427-8 // syntax -> semantics 338-52,428,431,585; algorithm 340-1,347-9 logical structure 102-29,147-8,154,320, passim // logophoricily 674 // macroroles, semantic 139-47,149-58,195, // 318- 19, 656-7, passim actor 141-7,149-58, passim // default assignment principles 151-8,373, passim // undergoer 141-7, \49-58, passim; variable linking 145-6,157-8,271-2,336-9, 345-6,379,383,386-9,392,584-5, 657-8,664,667 mass/count see individuation matrix-coding constructions 28-29,561-75, 609-10 // as non-PSA (’raising to object’) 561, 567-73,609 // as PS A (‘raising to subject’) 252-3, 259-60,262,274-6,278,357-8,360, 522,561-6,571-3,609,658 Meaning-text theory 12 middle constructions 416-17 modality 41-2,45-7,49,76,455,460-1,563, 643-4 // mood 42,450-2,613 morphology 432,664 patterns
of derivation 98-100,108-10, 181-2 // vs. syntax 1-2,484 morphophonology 22,651 morphosyntax 2,34 // negation 41,45-7,49,56-8,76,122.219. // 303-4,308.450-2,455,523-4,643-4 neutralization, restricted see grammatical relations // nexus 442,448-55,457,669 (see also juncture-nexus combinations) coordination 441.448-55,457,460,468-9, 507,563 // cosubordination 454-5,457,468-9,507, 563 // non-subordinate 461-2,468,478,482-3, 517,539-40,545-7,569,580,610,647 subordination 441-2,448-50,452-5,457, 461-9,505,647 nominals // deverbal 55,60,186-8, 194.196 semantic representation 186-8 nominative case 19,263,327,353-62,371-2, passim // noun phrase 53-63,67-8,16,passim complex 492-505,508,590-605,615-16; // linking in 494,590-605 discontinuous 23-4,63-4,67 juncture-nexus types 492-7; coreN cosubordination 494,496-7; coreN subordination 494-5,497; N P coordination 492-3,497; N P cosubordination 492-4,497; N P subordination 492-3,497-503,590-8; nuclearN juncture 495-7 layered structure of 54-7,478,492-3; coreN 54-60,492, coreN arguments 53-5,60,492,494,497; N P 54-9,492; nucleusN 54-9,492; peripheryN 55-6, 493,497-8 // operators 56-9,321,492-6,601-2 nouns, proper 56,59- 60 N P-initial position 56.60-2,492 nucleus 26-32,45-51,441-8,457,478,642, passim // object // direct 19-20,139-44,151,223,242-9,253, 256-7,260,263,269,270-4,352,540-3, 561.582,650,662 // indirect 242-3,271,274,352,582-3 primary 271-4 // primary object languages 271-2,347, 387-8 // secondary 271-3 oblique constituents core see
core argument, oblique peripheral see adjuncts operator projection see projection grammar operators 40-52,67-9,72-3,171-2,523-5, 643-4, passim // clausal 45-51,165-8,455,463-4,468,539, 552 // core 45-51,164-8,455,457,459-61 nuclear 45-51,164-8,171-2,455-9 sharing 449-54.455-61,464.468.520-1 // 710 // Subject index // participial construction 148-9,264,274-5, 476 // participle 455,472-4,670 particle verbs 653 partitive case 303,308,665 passive see voice performance, linguistic 9 periphery 26-32,169-71,326,334,426, 464-7,506,557-8 // pivot see privileged syntactic argument possession alienable 190,192 // inalienable 190,192,308,380-1,659 kin possession 191,308 possessive N P 60-2,189-92,380-1,495 semantic representation 190-2 possessor ‘raising’ 258,260,276,304,308 postcore slot 37-8,71-2,326,334,425,428 postpositions see adpositions pragmatics 7,8,11-14,39-40,199-214, 223-34,247,292,388-9,418-30,432, 627-30, passim Gricean 224,630,649 // precore slot 27,36-9,60,71-2,212-14,223, 228-30,296,326,332-4,425-8,498, 504,507,557-8,662, passim prepositions see adpositions presentational construction 208,234-5,307, 429-30 // presupposition (pragmatic) 200,202-4, 207-9,214,219,629,649 Principles and Parameters Theory 9,11, 18-20,21,65-9,244,318,441,468-9, 475,541,561,567,616-17,634,639,647, 649-50,652-3,662,669-70,673-5 privileged syntactic argument 176-7,281-5, 294-5,317,327,329,340,352-61,421-3, 460,590, passim // controller 274-84,317,460,540-5,547, 553-60,663: pragmatic 291-2,297-8;
semantic 274-9,292-3,297-8,305-6, 362,429,560; syntactic 274-5,294-5, 358,360-1,559-60, invariable 281,290, 294,298,305,429, variable 281-2,284, 290,297,305,341-3,355,362,559-60 pivot 275-84,294-5,317,460,507,546-7, 552-3,590,663,670; pragmatic 291-4, 327,354,358,422-3,433,520-3; semantic 275-81,306,429; syntactic 275-85,287-8,290-4,309,358,360-1, invariable 281,290-3,306,423,429, variable 281-4,290-3,305-6,341-3, 355,423 // selection principles 175-8,281-2,305-6, 317,360-1,397,399-400,404-5 processing, language 4,7-8,340,437 ‘pro-drop’ languages 34-5,331-2,523 projection grammar 46-9,430,652-3 constituent projection 31-4,48-9,164-71, 214-15,217-18,457,459,463-4,501, 507,525.652-3 // focus structure projection 214-15,217-18, 485-7 // operator projection 46-9,164-71,215, 217,457-61,463-4,485,501-2,507,525 652 // pronominalization backward 225-7 intersentential 224,231-3,236 intrasentential 223-31,236,428,668 pronouns 56,59-60,192-4,201,224-33,393 proto-roles 657 (see also macroroles, semantic) // prototype theory 280 punctual 92-6,104-6,385,670 purposive constructions 267-9,274-6,302, 433 // qualia 184-6,195-6,321,347 quantifiers 56-8,219-23 questions // indirect 505,669 // WH- 18-19,36,39,173-5,212,229-30, 234-5,252,322,324,326,331-3,350-1, 362-3,389,423-5,433-6,556-7,595, 615-26,670; constraints on 332,435-6, 595,615-26,647-9; in-situ 333,424-5, 615-21; core-internal focus position 333,419-20,424-5 // yes-no questions 226-30,424,486-90, 617,671; constraints on 486-90,619-21,
648 // raising see matrix-coding constructions reference-dominated languages 663 reference-tracking systems 285-90,307 gender/noun class 289-90,292 obviation 288-9,374-6 switch function 287,289-90,292,306,520, 523 (see also topic, chain) switch reference 287-8,290,450-4,521 referent, coding of 201,204-5,225-31,235, 321,468 // referential distance 231 referentiality 53-4,66,122-3,200-1,301, 419,421-2,425 // 711 // Subject index // reflexivizalion 279-80,293,297-8,305-6, 329-30,389-91,392-417,435-6,437, 446-7,567,604-15,667 clilic 392,407-17,437.607-8 coreference 392-3,396-408,417,604-15 domain of obligatory 224-5,396,405-7, 608-12,668 // domain of possible 396,405-6,608-12 lexical 392-6,417 // long-distance 393,406,606,611-15,634 picture reflexives 393,402-4 Relational Grammar 11,21,243,567,662, 663,667 // relative clauses 253,261-2,275,279-80, 293-4,300.329-30,478,488-93, 497-505,508,590-605,615-22,626-9 constraints on 261-2,279,293,590-5, // 615- 16,626-9,647 // externally headed 308,498-502,590-9 headless 503-5 // internally headed 304,308,499-503,590, 598-605,672 // right-detached position 38-9,167,169,171 Role and Reference Grammar 12-15,21, 46-7,52,73,236,291,437,442,469,590, 640,644,647,652-3,662,672 role-dominated languages 663 rules // lexical 178-84,188,195,389,667 syntactic: immediate dominance 69-70, // 72,73,75; linear precedence 70-3; transformational 18-20,65,245, // 616- 17,667 // satellite-framed languages 153-4 scope // negation 45-7,56,58,219,308,451-2 operators
46-52,71,171-2,455-61,491, 619,672 // quantifiers 56,58,219-23,236,494 see also negation, operators, quantifiers semantic representation adpositions 159-62,321,334-5 adverbs 162-71 clauses 195,322,525-6,614 nouns/noun phrases 184-94,321,393 operators 171-2,194-5,321-3,614 sentences 539,551,561,614 verbs 102-13,116-28,320 semantics 7.11-14,39-40.68.69,70,91.110. // 113, 388-9,432, passim sentence 29,38-9,72,448,469-70,612 Sentential Subject Constraint 616,622-3 // serial verb construction 456-9,530-3 slates of affairs 82-9,92,129 status 41-2.46-51,614-15 structural linguistics 2-3,5,15,16 structure, relational vs. non-reiational 17, 242 // subcategorization, syntactic 156,172-3, 177-8 // subjacency 616-17,623,647-9,674-5 // {see also relative clauses, constraints on; topicalization, constraints on; questions, WH-: constraints on) acquisition of 647-9 // subject 19,139-44,147,151,175-6,207-8, 219-23,242-70,273-4,277-80,284-5, 291,329,352,540-3,561,582,611, 613-14,650 // derived intransitive 266,268-70,307 dummy 338,351-2,573-4,673 inverted 207-8,211-12,218,219,234, // 418 // see also privileged syntactic argument subordinate clause see also relative clause; nexus, subordination adverbial clause 226-7,230,441-2,452-3, 464,466,477,481,485-93,498,508, 619-22,672 // complementation 441-2,452-3,461-3, 464-8,481-3,485-6,488-91,505-6, 508,526-9.561-2,564,568-9,571,615, 619-23,625,630-3,669 switch-function see reference-tracking systems // switch-reference see reference-tracking systems
// syntactic inventory 73-5,176-7,234,322-4, 431-2 // syntaclocentric perspective 8-11,16 syntax-semantics interface 139 (see also linking in complex sentences, linking in simple clauses) // Systemic Functional Grammar 11-12,15,76 Tagmemics 11 // telicity 92-6,99-100,111-12, 118,181-2.301 templates // combining 74-5,234-5,322,324,432 constructional 73,342,423,430-6,521-2, 654,669 // syntactic 73-5.173-6,234-5,322-4. 430-2,505-7,521-2,592-3; selection principles 173-6,324,432,546,568-9, 592-3 // 712 // Subject index // tense 40,45-51,73,165,169-70,447,450-2, 454-5,464.475,524-5,539,552,561. 614,643-4,670 text 231-3,236,469-70 //mi-clause 442,455,462-7,474,481-3, // 485-7,494-5,505-6,527-9,539,551-2, 561,564,571,622-3.630.669 thematic relations 113-29,139-46, 154, 246-9,271-2,376-7.384,397,401.656 passim // topic 199-200,203-8,214,215,222-3, 224-5,231-2,247,251-2,272,306-8, 421-2,520,627-9,644,661,663 chain 231,285-7,291-3,302,468.520.523 (see also conjunction reduction) topic-comment 199-200,203,206,208, 221,250,629,660 (see also focus, predicate) // topicalization 210,434,595,615-16,626-9, 633 // constraints on 283,293,595,615-16, 627-9,633,647 // transformational grammar 17-21,52,69, 243-5,318,467,561,567 transitivity 147-56,172-3 M(acrorole)-transitivity 150-8,355-6, 385,562,564 // S(yntactic)-transitivity 150,173,324,546, 568-9 // Tree-Adjoining Grammar 654 // Unaccusative Hypothesis 662 undergoer see macroroles, semantic universale 9,11,22-31,39-40,52,59,71,72, 76,206,217-18,245,260,385-6,388-9,
399,463 // universal grammar 11,14-15,22,243,651 // valence 147-50,195 (see also transitivity) verb-framed languages 153-4 verb phrase (VP) 19-20,23,217-18,244-5, 441,469,650-1,662 VP ellipsis 523-67,672 verb types // attributive/identificational 103,125-6, 156,417,591,658,668 cognition 114-15,125,156,347,376,479, 482-3 // consumption 111-12,180 creation 111-12,180 // desire 115,125,347,383 directed perception 114-15,124-5,153, 658 // emotion 115,125,156,347 existence 114-15 // internal experience 103,114-15,125,156, 347 // location 115,125,127-8,153-4,376 motion 109, 111, 118,153-4,162,180,658 perception 114-15,125,153,156,347,376, 473-4,670 // performance 115,118,180 possession 109,114-15,125,127-8,154, 347,376,658-9 // propositional attitude 115,125,154,156, 347,479,482-3,613 repetitive action 115 saying 115-18,400-1,545,551,613,630, 668 // state or condition 114-15 use 115,124-5,153,658 see also Aktionsart // voice 143,176,282,287,294-302,309,663 active 140-3.175-6,242,251,268,328, 343,664 // antipassive 143,176,268-70,277,282-4, 286-7,294-5,299-302,306,309,328-9, 394,434-5,553 // argument modulation 294-5,298-9, 300-2,391-2 instrumental 261 // passive 140-2,147-9,151,173-6,242, 246-9,251,253.261,264,266,268-70, 282-7,294-9,307,309,328-9,343-4, 353-5,357-60,389-91,432-3,462,522, 534-5,545,571,645-6,657-8,667 PSA modulation 294-8,299-300,302, 306,317 // wa vs. ga (Japanese) 206-11,223 // want constructions see control constructions // WH-Island Constraint 616 // Word Grammar
12 // word order see linear order (precedence), linearization // X-bar syntax 67-68 // zero anaphora 201,231-3,285-6,289,293, // 468,520-3,661,670 // 713

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