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Bibliografická citace

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0 (hodnocen0 x )
(1.3) Půjčeno:8x 
BK
Příručka
1st publ.
London : Longman, 1991
192 s.

objednat
ISBN 0-582-00237-0 (brož.)
Longman handbooks for language teachers
Obsahuje rejstřík
Bibliografie: s. 188-190
Angličtina - testy - techniky - příručky učitelské
000120335
CONTENTS // 1 Introduction to language testing 5 // 1.1 Testing and teaching 5 // 1.2 Why test? 6 // 1.3 What should be tested and to what standard? 7 // 1.4 Testing the language skills 8 // 1.5 Testing language areas 9 // 1.6 Language skills and language elements 10 // 1.7 Recognition and production 11 // 1.8 Problems of sampling 12 // 1.9 Avoiding traps for the students 14 // 2 Approaches to language testing 15 // 2.1 Background 15 // 2.2 The essay-translation approach 15 // 2.3 The structuralist approach 15 // 2.4 The integrative approach 16 // 2.5 The communicative approach 19 // 3 Objective testing 25 // 3.1 Subjective and objective testing 25 // 3.2 Objective tests 26 // 3.3 Multiple-choice items: general 27 // 3.4 Multiple-choice items: the stem/the correct option/the distractors 30 // 3.5 Writing the test 33 // 4 Tests of grammar and usage 34 // 4.1 Introduction 34 // 4.2 Multiple-choice grammar items: item types 34 // 4.3 Constructing multiple-choice items 37 // 4.4 Constructing error-recognition multiple-choice items 39 // 4.5 Constructing rearrangement items 41 // 4.6 Constructing completion items 42 // 4.7 Constructing transformation items 46 // 4.8 Constructing items involving the changing of words 48 // 4.9 Constructing’broken sentence’items 49 // 4.10 Constructing pairing and matching items 49 // 4.11 Constructing combination and addition items 50 // 5 Testing vocabulary 51 // 5.1 Selection of items 51 // 5.2 Multiple-choice items (A) 52 // 5.3 Multiple-choice items (B) 56 // 5.4 Sets (associated words) 58 // 5.5 Matching items 58 // 5.6 More objective items 60 // 5.7 Completion items 62 // 6 Listening comprehension tests 64 // 6.1 General 64 // 6.2 Phoneme discrimination tests 65 // 6.3 Tests of stress and intonation 68 // 6.4 Statements and dialogues 69 // 6.5 Testing comprehension through visual materials 71 // 6.6 Understanding talks and lectures 82 //
7 Oral production tests 88 // 7.1 Some difficulties in testing the speaking skills 88 // 7.2 Reading aloud 89 // 7.3 Conversational exchanges 90 // 7.4 Using pictures for assessing oral production 92 // 7.5 The oral interview 96 // 7.6 Some other techniques for oral examining 102 // 8 Testing reading comprehension 105 // 8.1 The nature of the reading skills 105 // 8.2 Initial stages of reading: matching tests 107 // 8.3 Intermediate and advanced stages of reading: matching tests 110 // 8.4 True/false reading tests 113 // 8.5 Multiple-choice items (A): short texts 116 // 8.6 Multiple-choice items (B): longer texts 117 // 8.7 Completion items 124 // 8.8 Rearrangement items 129 // 8.9 Cloze procedure 131 // 8.10 Open-ended and miscellaneous items 133 // 8.11 Cursory reading 133 // 9 Testing the writing skills 135 // 9.1 The writing skills 135 // 9.2 Testing composition writing 136 // 9.3 Setting the composition 138 // 9.4 Grading the composition 144 // 9.5 Treatment of written errors 149 // 9.6 Objective tests: mechanics 150 // 9.7 Objective tests: style and register 152 // 9.8 Controlled writing 154 // 10 Criteria and types of tests 159 // 10.1 Validity 159 // 10.2 Reliability 162 // 10.3 Reliability versus validity 164 // 10.4 Discrimination 165 // 10.5 Administration 167 // 10.6 Test instructions to the candidate 168 // 10.7 Backwash effects 170 // 10.8 Types of tests 171 // 11 Interpreting test scores 174 // 11.1 Frequency distribution 174 // 11.2 Measures of central tendency 175 // 11.3 Measures of dispersion 176 // 11.4 Item analysis 178 // 11.5 Moderating 185 // 11.6 Item cards and banks 185 // Selected bibliography 188 // Index 191 //
INDEX // Achievement tests 172 Addition items 50 Administration 167-168 Analytic marking 148 Aptitude items 173 Attainment tests 171 Backwash 170-171 Banding — compositions 145-146 — oral interviews 98-100 Broken sentence items 49 Central tendency 175-176 Changing words 48-49 Classification of tests 15 Classroom tests 6 Cloze procedure 16-17, 131-133 Combination items 50 Communicative approach 19-24 Completion items — grammar 42-46 — reading comprehension 124-129 — sentences, texts 156-157 — spelling 151-152 — vocabulary 62-63 Composition — general 136-150 — setting 138-143 — titles 137-138 Concurrent validity 161-162 Connectives 156 Construct validity 161 Content validity 160-161 Controlled writing 154-158 Conversations 90-92 Cursory reading 133-134 Definitions 62 Diagnostic testing 6, 173 Dialogues 69-71,90-92 Dictation 17-18, 151 Difficulty index 178-179 Discrimination 165, 179-182 Dispersion 176-178 Empirical validity 161-162 Error, test margin of 166 Error recognition items 39-40, 152 Error-count marking 148-149 Errors 149-150 Essay-translation approach 15 Evaluation 7 Extended answer analysis 182-185 Extensive reading 106 Face validity 159-160 Facility value 178-179 Fragmented sentences 155 Frequency distribution 174-175 Grading compositions 144-149 Grammar 9, 34-50 Group discussion 102-104 Impression marking 147-148 Impure items 29 Index of difficulty 178-179 Instructions 168-170 Integrative approach 16 Intensive reading 106 Interpretation of scores 174-188 Intonation 68-69 Items — analysis 178-185 — cards and banks 185-187 — difficulty 178-179 — discrimination 179-182 (For types of items, see individual entries, e.g. addition, combination multiple-choice) Judgement skills 135 Language areas 9 Language elements 10-11 Language skills 8, 10-11 Lectures 82-87 Length of texts 118 Linking sentences 15 Listening comprehension 64-87 Mark/re-mark reliability 162
Marking — analytic method 148 — compositions 144-149 — error-count method 148-149 — impression method 147-148 — mechanical accuracy method 148-149 — treatment of errors 149-150 Matching items — reading 107-113 — vocabulary 58-60 Mean 175-176 Mechanical accuracy marking 148-149 Median 175 Mistakes 7, 149-150 Mode 175 Model paragraphs 154 Moderating 186-187 Motivation 7 Multiple marking 147-148 Multiple-choice items — construction 27-40 — correct option 37-38 — distractors 32-33 — error recognition 39-40 — grammar 9 — listening 66-71 — reading 116-124 — spelling 151 — stem 36-37 — vocabulary 52-28 — writing 152-153 Objective testing 25-27 Open-ended items 133 Oral production 88-104 Oral interview 96-102 Pairing and matching items 49-50 Parallel test forms 163 Performance levels 21-23 Phoneme discrimination 65-68 Phonology 9 Pictures — listening comprehension 71-82 — matching 110,112 — speaking 92-96 — writing 142-143 Practicability 167-168 Predictive validity 161-162 Problem solving 102-104 Production 11 Proficiency tests 172-173 Profile reporting 19-23, 163 Progress tests 171 -172 Psychometric approach 16 Punctuation 135, 150-151 Qualitative judgements 20-22 Range 176 Rating scale — compositions 145-146 — oral interviews 98-100 Reading — extracts (for writing) 155-156 — reading aloud 89-90 — skills 105-106 — test specifications 22-23 Rearrangement items — grammar 41-42 — reading 129-131 — vocabulary 61 Recognition 11 Redundancy 64 Register 153-154 Reliability 12, 162-165 — listening comprehension 65 — mark/re-mark 162 — parallel test forms 163 — profile reporting 163 — split half-method 163-164 — test/re-test 162 — v validity 164-165 Role playing 102-104 Rubrics 168-170 Sampling 12,51-52,118 Scanning 133-134 Scores 174-188 Scoring — oral interviews 98-100 Sentence matching 107-110 Sets 58 Skimming 133-134 Speaking 21-23,88-104 Specifications 13 Spelling 135, 151-152
Split-half method 163-164 Spoken language 64-65 Spread of scores 166-167 Standard deviation 176-178 Standards 7 Statements 69-71 Stress 68-69 Structuralist approach 15 Style 152-153 Subjective testing 25-26 Synonyms 61 Talks 82-87, 102 Teaching 5.170-171 Test types 106-107, 171-173 Test/re-test reliability 162 Transformation items 46-48 Translation 18-19 Traps 14 True/false tests 113-116 Usage 34-50 Validity 159-162 — concurrent 161 — construct 161 — content 160-161 — empirical 161-162 — face 159-160 — predictive 161 — v reliability 164-165 Visuals — listening comprehension 71-82 — matching 110,112 — speaking 92-96 — writing 142-143 Vocabulary 9, 51-63 Word formation 61 Word matching 107 Writing 135-158 — levels 136 — tasks 136

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