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Bibliografická citace

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0 (hodnocen0 x )
BK
Příručka
Boca Raton : CRC Press, c1997
[26], 780 s. : il. ; 26 cm

objednat
ISBN 0-8493-8523-7 (váz.)
Discrete mathematics and its applications
Obsahuje bibliografické odkazy a rejstřík
000190848
Contents in Brief // 1 Overview of Cryptography...1 // 2 Mathematical Background...49 // 3 Number-Theoretic Reference Problems...87 // 4 Public-Key Parameters...133 // 5 Pseudorandom Bits and Sequences ...169 // 6 Stream Ciphers...191 // 7 Block Ciphers...223 // 8 Public-Key Encryption...283 // 9 Hash Functions and Data Integrity...321 // 10 Identification and Entity Authentication...385 // 11 Digital Signatures...425 // 12 Key Establishment Protocols...489 // 13 Key Management Techniques...543 // 14 Efficient Implementation ...591 // 15 Patents and Standards...635 // A Bibliography of Papers from Selected Cryptographic Forums...663 // References...703 // Index...755 // Table of Contents // 1 Overview of Cryptography 1 // 1.1 Introduction... 1 // 1.2 Information security and cryptography... 2 // 1.3 Background on functions... 6 // 1.3.1 Functions (1-1, one-way, trapdoor one-way)... 6 // 1.3.2 Permutations... 10 // 1.3.3 Involutions... 10 // 1.4 Basic terminology and concepts... 11 // 1.5 Symmetric-key encryption ... 15 // 1.5.1 Overview of block ciphers and stream ciphers... 15 // 1.5.2 Substitution ciphers and transposition ciphers... 17 // 1.5.3 Composition of ciphers... 19 // 1.5.4 Stream ciphers... 20 // 1.5.5 The key space... 21 // 1.6 Digital signatures... 22 // 1.7 Authentication and identification... 24 // 1.7.1 Identification... 24 // 1.7.2 Data origin authentication... 25 // 1.8 Public-key cryptography ... 25 // 1.8.1 Public-key encryption... 25 // 1.8.2 The necessity
of authentication in public-key systems... 27 // 1.8.3 Digital signatures from reversible public-key encryption... 28 // 1.8.4 Symmetric-key vs. public-key cryptography... 31 // 1.9 Hash functions ... 33 // 1.10 Protocols and mechanisms... 33 // 1.11 Key establishment, management, and certification... 35 // 1.11.1 Key management through symmetric-key techniques... 36 // 1.11.2 Key management through public-key techniques... 37 // 1.11.3 Trusted third parties and public-key certificates... 39 // 1.12 Pseudorandom numbers and sequences... 39 // 1.13 Classes of attacks and security models ... 41 // 1.13.1 Attacks on encryption schemes ... 41 // 1.13.2 Attacks on protocols... 42 // 1.13.3 Models for evaluating security... 42 // 1.13.4 Perspective for computational security... 44 // 1.14 Notes and further references... 45 // Table of Contents // 2 Mathematical Background 49 // 2.1 Probability theory... 50 // 2.1.1 Basic definitions... 50 // 2.1.2 Conditional probability ... 51 // 2.1.3 Random variables... 51 // 2.1.4 Binomial distribution ... 52 // 2.1.5 Birthday problems... 53 // 2.1.6 Random mappings... 54 // 2.2 Information theory ... 56 // 2.2.1 Entropy ... 56 // 2.2.2 Mutual information ... 57 // 2.3 Complexity theory... 57 // 2.3.1 Basic definitions... 57 // 2.3.2 Asymptotic notation... 58 // 2.3.3 Complexity classes... 59 // 2.3.4 Randomized algorithms... 62 // 2.4 Number theory ... 63 // 2.4.1 The integers... 63 // 2.4.2 Algorithms in Z... 66 // 2.4.3 The integers modulo n...
67 // 2.4.4 Algorithms in Z„ ... 71 // 2.4.5 The Legendre and Jacobi symbols... 72 // 2.4.6 Blum integers... 74 // 2.5 Abstract algebra... 75 // 2.5.1 Groups... 75 // 2.5.2 Rings ... 76 // 2.5.3 Fields ... 77 // 2.5.4 Polynomial rings... 78 // 2.5.5 Vector spaces ... 79 // 2.6 Finite fields... 80 // 2.6.1 Basic properties... 80 // 2.6.2 The Euclidean algorithm for polynomials... 81 // 2.6.3 Arithmetic of polynomials... 83 // 2.7 Notes and further references... 85 // 3 Number-Theoretic Reference Problems 87 // 3.1 Introduction and overview... 87 // 3.2 The integer factorization problem... 89 // 3.2.1 Trial division... 90 // 3.2.2 Pollard’s rho factoring algorithm... 91 // 3.2.3 Pollard’s p - 1 factoring algorithm ... 92 // 3.2.4 Elliptic curve factoring... 94 // 3.2.5 Random square factoring methods... 94 // 3.2.6 Quadratic sieve factoring... 95 // 3.2.7 Number field sieve factoring... 98 // 3.3 The RSA problem... 98 // 3.4 The quadratic residuosity problem... 99 // 3.5 Computing square roots in Z„... 99 // 3.5.1 Case (i): n prime...100 // 3.5.2 Case (ii): n composite...101 // Table of Contents // 3.6 The discrete logarithm problem...103 // 3.6.1 Exhaustive search...104 // 3.6.2 Baby-step giant-step algorithm...104 // 3.6.3 Pollard’s rho algorithm for logarithms...106 // 3.6.4 Pohlig-Hellman algorithm...107 // 3.6.5 Index-calculus algorithm...109 // 3.6.6 Discrete logarithm problem in subgroups of Z’...113 // 3.7 The Diffie-Hellman problem ...113 // 3.8 Composite moduli...114
// 3.9 Computing individual bits...114 // 3.9.1 The discrete logarithm problem in Z* — individual bits...116 // 3.9.2 The RSA problem — individual bits...116 // 3.9.3 The Rabin problem — individual bits...117 // 3.10 The subset sum problem...117 // 3.10.1 The L3-lattice basis reduction algorithm...118 // 3.10.2 Solving subset sum problems of low density...120 // 3.10.3 Simultaneous diophantine approximation...121 // 3.11 Factoring polynomials over finite fields...122 // 3.11.1 Square-free factorization...123 // 3.11.2 Berlekamp’s Q-matrix algorithm...124 // 3.12 Notes and further references...125 // 4 Public-Key Parameters 133 // 4.1 Introduction...133 // 4.1.1 Approaches to generating large prime numbers...134 // 4.1.2 Distribution of prime numbers...134 // 4.2 Probabilistic primality tests...135 // 4.2.1 Fermat’s test...136 // 4.2.2 Solovay-Strassen test ...137 // 4.2.3 Miller-Rabin test...138 // 4.2.4 Comparison: Fermat, Solovay-Strassen, and Miller-Rabin 140 // 4.3 (True) Primality tests...142 // 4.3.1 Testing Mersenne numbers...142 // 4.3.2 Primality testing using the factorization of n - 1 ...143 // 4.3.3 Jacobi sum test...144 // 4.3.4 Tests using elliptic curves...145 // 4.4 Prime number generation...145 // 4.4.1 Random search for probable primes...145 // 4.4.2 Strong primes...149 // 4.4.3 NIST method for generating DS A primes...150 // 4.4.4 Constructive techniques for provable primes...152 // 4.5 Irreducible polynomials over Zp...154 // 4.5.1 Irreducible polynomials...154
// 4.5.2 Irreducible trinomials...157 // 4.5.3 Primitive polynomials...157 // 4.6 Generators and elements of high order ...160 // 4.6.1 Selecting a prime p and generator of Z*...164 // 4.7 Notes and further references...165 // Table of Contents // 5 Pseudorandom Bits and Sequences 169 // 5.1 Introduction...169 // 5.1.1 Background and Classification...170 // 5.2 Random bit generation ...171 // 5.3 Pseudorandom bit generation...173 // 5.3.1 ANSI X9.17 generator...173 // 5.3.2 FIPS 186 generator...174 // 5.4 Statistical tests...175 // 5.4.1 The normal and chi-square distributions...176 // 5.4.2 Hypothesis testing...179 // 5.4.3 Golomb’s randomness postulates...180 // 5.4.4 Five basic tests...181 // 5.4.5 Maurer’s universal statistical test ...183 // 5.5 Cryptographically secure pseudorandom bit generation...185 // 5.5.1 RSA pseudorandom bit generator...185 // 5.5.2 Blum-Blum-Shub pseudorandom bit generator...186 // 5.6 Notes and further references...187 // 6 Stream Ciphers 191 // 6.1 Introduction...191 // 6.1.1 Classification ...192 // 6.2 Feedback shift registers...195 // 6.2.1 Linear feedback shift registers...195 // 6.2.2 Linear complexity...198 // 6.2.3 Berlekamp-Massey algorithm...200 // 6.2.4 Nonlinear feedback shift registers...202 // 6.3 Stream ciphers based on LFSRs...203 // 6.3.1 Nonlinear combination generators...205 // 6.3.2 Nonlinear filter generators...208 // 6.3.3 Clock-controlled generators...209 // 6.4 Other stream ciphers...212 // 6.4.1 SEAL...213 // 6.5 Notes
and further references...216 // 7 Block Ciphers 223 // 7.1 Introduction and overview...223 // 7.2 Background and general concepts...224 // 7.2.1 Introduction to block ciphers...224 // 7.2.2 Modes of operation ...228 // 7.2.3 Exhaustive key search and multiple encryption ...233 // 7.3 Classical ciphers and historical development...237 // 7.3.1 Transposition ciphers (background)...238 // 7.3.2 Substitution ciphers (background)...238 // 7.3.3 Polyalphabetic substitutions and Vigenére ciphers (historical) . . . 241 // 7.3.4 Polyalphabetic cipher machines and rotors (historical)...242 // 7.3.5 Cryptanalysis of classical ciphers (historical)...245 // 7.4 DES...250 // 7.4.1 Product ciphers and Feistel ciphers...250 // 7.4.2 DES algorithm...252 // 7.4.3 DES properties and strength...256 // Table of Contents // 7.5 FEAL...259 // 7.6 IDEA...263 // 7.7 SAFER, RC5, and other block ciphers...266 // 7.7.1 SAFER ...266 // 7.7.2 RC5...269 // 7.7.3 Other block ciphers...270 // 7.8 Notes and further references...271 // 8 Public-Key Encryption 283 // 8.1 Introduction...283 // 8.1.1 Basic principles...284 // 8.2 RSA public-key encryption...285 // 8.2.1 Description...286 // 8.2.2 Security of RSA...287 // 8.2.3 RSA encryption in practice ...290 // 8.3 Rabin public-key encryption...292 // 8.4 ElGamal public-key encryption...294 // 8.4.1 Basic ElGamal encryption...294 // 8.4.2 Generalized ElGamal encryption...297 // 8.5 McEliece public-key encryption...298 // 8.6 Knapsack public-key encryption...300
// 8.6.1 Merkle-Hellman knapsack encryption...300 // 8.6.2 Chor-Rivest knapsack encryption...302 // 8.7 Probabilistic public-key encryption...306 // 8.7.1 Goldwasser-Micali probabilistic encryption...307 // 8.7.2 Blum-Goldwasser probabilistic encryption...308 // 8.7.3 Plaintext-aware encryption...311 // 8.8 Notes and further references...312 // 9 Hash Functions and Data Integrity 321 // 9.1 Introduction...321 // 9.2 Classification and framework...322 // 9.2.1 General classification ...322 // 9.2.2 Basic properties and definitions...323 // 9.2.3 Hash properties required for specific applications...327 // 9.2.4 One-way functions and compression functions...327 // 9.2.5 Relationships between properties ...329 // 9.2.6 Other hash function properties and applications...330 // 9.3 Basic constructions and general results...332 // 9.3.1 General model for iterated hash functions...332 // 9.3.2 General constructions and extensions...333 // 9.3.3 Formatting and initialization details...334 // 9.3.4 Security objectives and basic attacks...335 // 9.3.5 Bitsizes required for practical security...337 // 9.4 Unkeyed hash functions (MDCs)...338 // 9.4.1 Hash functions based on block ciphers...338 // 9.4.2 Customized hash functions based on MD4...343 // 9.4.3 Hash functions based on modular arithmetic...351 // 9.5 Keyed hash functions (MACs) ...352 // 9.5.1 MACs based on block ciphers...353 // Table of Contents // 9.5.2 Constructing MACs from MDCs...354 // 9.5.3 Customized MACs...356 // 9.5.4 MACs
for stream ciphers ...358 // 9.6 Data integrity and message authentication...359 // 9.6.1 Background and definitions...359 // 9.6.2 Non-malicious vs. malicious threats to data integrity...362 // 9.6.3 Data integrity using a MAC alone...364 // 9.6.4 Data integrity using an MDC and an authentic channel .364 // 9.6.5 Data integrity combined with encryption...364 // 9.7 Advanced attacks on hash functions...368 // 9.7.1 Birthday attacks...369 // 9.7.2 Pseudo-collisions and compression function attacks...371 // 9.7.3 Chaining attacks...373 // 9.7.4 Attacks based on properties of underlying cipher...375 // 9.8 Notes and further references...376 // 10 Identification and Entity Authentication 385 // 10.1 Introduction...385 // 10.1.1 Identification objectives and applications ...386 // 10.1.2 Properties of identification protocols...387 // 10.2 Passwords (weak authentication)...388 // 10.2.1 Fixed password schemes: techniques ...389 // 10.2.2 Fixed password schemes: attacks...391 // 10.2.3 Case study - UNIX passwords...393 // 10.2.4 PINs and passkeys...394 // 10.2.5 One-time passwords (towards strong authentication)...395 // 10.3 Challenge-response identification (strong authentication)...397 // 10.3.1 Background on time-variant parameters...397 // 10.3.2 Challenge-response by symmetric-key techniques...400 // 10.3.3 Challenge-response by public-key techniques...403 // 10.4 Customized and zero-knowledge identification protocols...405 // 10.4.1 Overview of zero-knowledge concepts...405
10.4.2 Feige-Fiat-Shamir identification protocol...410 // 10.4.3 GQ identification protocol...412 // 10.4.4 Schnorr identification protocol...414 // 10.4.5 Comparison: Fiat-Shamir, GQ, and Schnorr...416 // 10.5 Attacks on identification protocols ...417 // 10.6 Notes and further references...420 // 11 Digital Signatures 425 // 11.1 Introduction...425 // 11.2 A framework for digital signature mechanisms...426 // 11.2.1 Basic definitions...426 // 11.2.2 Digital signature schemes with appendix...428 // 11.2.3 Digital signature schemes with message recovery...430 // 11.2.4 Types of attacks on signature schemes...432 // 11.3 RSA and related signature schemes...433 // 11.3.1 The RSA signature scheme ...433 // 11.3.2 Possible attacks on RSA signatures...434 // 11.3.3 RSA signatures in practice...435 // Table of Contents // 11.3.4 The Rabin public-key signature scheme...438 // 11.3.5 ISO/IEC 9796 formatting...442 // 11.3.6 PKCS#1 formatting...445 // 11.4 Fiat-Shamir signature schemes...447 // 11.4.1 Feige-Fiat-Shamir signature scheme...447 // 11.4.2 GQ signature scheme ...450 // 11.5 The DS A and related signature schemes...451 // 11.5.1 The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)...452 // 11.5.2 The ElGamal signature scheme...454 // 11.5.3 The Schnorr signature scheme...459 // 11.5.4 The ElGamal signature scheme with message recovery...460 // 11.6 One-time digital signatures...462 // 11.6.1 The Rabin one-time signature scheme...462 // 11.6.2 The Merkle one-time signature scheme...464 // 11.6.3
Authentication trees and one-time signatures...466 // 11.6.4 The GMR one-time signature scheme...468 // 11.7 Other signature schemes...471 // 11.7.1 Arbitrated digital signatures...472 // 11.7.2 ESIGN...473 // 11.8 Signatures with additional functionality...474 // 11.8.1 Blind signature schemes...475 // 11.8.2 Undeniable signature schemes...476 // 11.8.3 Fail-stop signature schemes...478 // 11.9 Notes and further references...481 // 12 Key Establishment Protocols 489 // 12.1 Introduction...489 // 12.2 Classification and framework...490 // 12.2.1 General classification and fundamental concepts...490 // 12.2.2 Objectives and properties...493 // 12.2.3 Assumptions and adversaries in key establishment protocols . . . . 495 // 12.3 Key transport based on symmetric encryption...497 // 12.3.1 Symmetric key transport and derivation without a server 497 // 12.3.2 Kerberos and related server-based protocols...500 // 12.4 Key agreement based on symmetric techniques...505 // 12.5 Key disport based on public-key encryption...506 // 12.5.KK£Kу transport using PK encryption without signatures...507 // 12.5.2 Protocols combining PK encryption and signatures...509 // 12.5.3 Hybrid key transport protocols using PK encryption...512 // 12.6 Key agreement based on asymmetric techniques...515 // 12.6.1 Diffie-Hellman and related key agreement protocols...515 // 12.6.2 Implicitly-certified public keys...520 // 12.6.3 Diffie-Hellman protocols using implicitly-certified keys...522 // 12.7 Secret
sharing...524 // 12.7.1 Simple shared control schemes...524 // 12.7.2 Threshold schemes...525 // 12.7.3 Generalized secret sharing...526 // 12.8 Conference keying ...528 // 12.9 Analysis of key establishment protocols...530 // 12.9.1 Attack strategies and classic protocol flaws...530 // Table of Contents // 12.9.2 Analysis objectives and methods...532 // 12.10 Notes and further references...534 // 13 Key Management Techniques 543 // 13.1 Introduction...543 // 13.2 Background and basic concepts...544 // 13.2.1 Classifying keys by algorithm type and intended use...544 // 13.2.2 Key management objectives, threats, and policy...545 // 13.2.3 Simple key establishment models...546 // 13.2.4 Roles of third parties...547 // 13.2.5 Tradeoffs among key establishment protocols...550 // 13.3 Techniques for distributing confidential keys...551 // 13.3.1 Key layering and cryptoperiods...551 // 13.3.2 Key translation centers and symmetric-key certificates... 553 // 13.4 Techniques for distributing public keys...K555 // 13.4.1 Authentication trees...556 // 13.4.2 Public-key certificates...559 // 13.4.3 Identity-based systems...561 // 13.4.4 Implicitly-certified public keys...562 // 13.4.5 Comparison of techniques for distributing public keys...563 // 13.5 Techniques for controlling key usage...567 // 13.5.1 Key separation and constraints on key usage...567 // 13.5.2 Techniques for controlling use of symmetric keys...568 // 13.6 Key management involving multiple domains...570 // 13.6.1 Trust
between two domains...570 // 13.6.2 Trust models involving multiple certification authorities...572 // 13.6.3 Certificate distribution and revocation...576 // 13.7 Key life cycle issues...577 // 13.7.1 Lifetime protection requirements...578 // 13.7.2 Key management life cycle...578 // 13.8 Advanced trusted third party services...581 // 13.8.1 Trusted timestamping service...581 // 13.8.2 Non-repudiation and notarization of digital signatures...582 // 13.8.3 Key escrow...584 // 13.9 Notes and further references...586 // 14 Efficient Implementation 591 // 14.1 Introduction...591 // 14.2 Multiple-precision integer arithmetic...592 // 14.2.1 Radix representation...592 // 14.2.2 Addition and subtraction...594 // 14.2.3 Multiplication...595 // 14.2.4 Squaring...596 // 14.2.5 Division...598 // 14.3 Multiple-precision modular arithmetic...599 // 14.3.1 Classical modular multiplication...600 // 14.3.2 Montgomery reduction...600 // 14.3.3 Barrett reduction...603 // 14.3.4 Reduction methods for moduli of special form...605 // 14.4 Greatest common divisor algorithms ...606 // Table of Contents // 14.4.1 Binary gcd algorithm...606 // 14.4.2 Lehmer’s gcd algorithm...607 // 14.4.3 Binary extended gcd algorithm...608 // 14.5 Chinese remainder theorem for integers...610 // 14.5.1 Residue number systems...611 // 14.5.2 Garner’s algorithm...612 // 14.6 Exponentiation...613 // 14.6.1 Techniques for general exponentiation...614 // 14.6.2 Fixed-exponent exponentiation algorithms...620 // 14.6.3
Fixed-base exponentiation algorithms...623 // 14.7 Exponent recoding ...627 // 14.7.1 Signed-digit representation...627 // 14.7.2 String-replacement representation...628 // 14.8 Notes and further references...630 // 15 Patents and Standards 635 // 15.1 Introduction...635 // 15.2 Patents on cryptographic techniques...635 // 15.2.1 Five fundamental patents...636 // 15.2.2 Ten prominent patents...638 // 15.2.3 Ten selected patents...641 // 15.2.4 Ordering and acquiring patents...645 // 15.3 Cryptographic standards...645 // 15.3.1 International standards - cryptographic techniques...645 // 15.3.2 Banking security standards (ANSI, ISO)...648 // 15.3.3 International security architectures and frameworks...653 // 15.3.4 U.S. government standards (FIPS)...654 // 15.3.5 Internet standards and RFCs...655 // 15.3.6 De facto standards...656 // 15.3.7 Ordering and acquiring standards...656 // 15.4 Notes and further references...657 // A Bibliography of Papers from Selected Cryptographic Forums 663 // A. 1 Asiacrypt/Auscrypt Proceedings...663 // A.2 Crypto Proceedings...667 // A.3 Eurocrypt Proceedings ...684 // A.4 Fast Software Encryption Proceedings ...698 // A.5 Journal of Cryptology papers...700 // References 703 // Index 755

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