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Bibliografická citace

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BK
New York : W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers : Macmillan Higher Education Company, [2014]
xiv, 494 stran, 22 v různém stránkování : ilustrace (převážně barevné), mapy ; 28 cm

objednat
ISBN 978-1-4292-3860-1 (brožováno) ISBN !1-4292-3860-7 (chyb.)
Obsahuje bibliografie a rejstřík
001452287
Foreword xi // PART I // Geomorphology and Its Tools 3 // Earth’s Dynamic Surface 5 // Introduction 5 // Geosphere б // Isostasy б Tectonics 11 // Lithology and Structure 13 // Hydrosphere 14 // Climate and Climate Zones 14 // Hydrologie Cycle 16 // Biosphere 16 // Geographical Distribution of Ecosystems 18 // Humans 20 // Landscapes 20 // Process and Form 22 // Spatial Scales 22 // Temporal Scales 23 // Unifying Concepts 24 // Conservation of Mass 24 // Conservation of Energy 24 // Material Routing 24 // Force Balances and Thresholds 25 // Equilibrium and Steady State 27 // Recurrence Intervals and Magnitude-Frequency Relationships 28 // Applications 28 // Selected References and Further Reading 30 // Digging Deeper: Why Is Earth Habitable? ЗI Worked Problem 34 // Knowledge Assessment 34 // A Brief History of Geomorphology 36 // Geomorphologist’s Tool Kit 43 // Introduction 43 // Characterizing Earth’s Surface 44 // Field Surveys 44 // Active Remote Sensing 46 // Passive Remote Sensing 47 // Digital Topographic and Landscape Analysis 47 // Relative Dating Methods 48 // Landform Degradation 48 // Rock Weathering and Soil Development 50 // Rock Varnish 50 // Calibrated Relative Dates 50 // Numerical Dating Methods 52 // Dendrochronology 52 // Radiocarbon Dating 53 // К/Ar Dating 54 // иЯІі Dating 56 // Luminescence Dating 56 // In-Situ Cosmogenic Nuclide Analysis 58 // Measuring Rates of Geomorphic Processes 59 // Sediment Generation Versus Sediment Yield 59 // Landscape Change at Outcrop and Hillslope Scales61 // Landscape Change at Basin Scales 63 // Erosion Rates over 10’J to 10" Year Timescales 63 // Experiments 63 // Field Experiments 63 // Laboratory Experiments 65 // Numerical Models 66 // Proxy Records 66 // Applications 67 // Selected References and Further Reading 68 // Digging Deeper: How Does a Dating Method Develop? 69 // Worked Problem 72 // Knowledge Assessment 72 //
PART II // Source to Sink // Weathering and Soils 77 // Introduction 77 // Physical Weathering 80 // Exfoliation 80 // Freeze-Thaw 82 // Thermal Expansion 82 // Wetting and Drying 83 // vi Contents // Chemical Weathering 83 // Mineral Stability 84 // Oxidation and Reduction 85 // Solution 85 // Hydrolysis 86 // Clay Formation 87 // Hydration 88 // Chelation 89 // Cation Exchange 89 // Soils 89 // Soil-Development Processes 89 // Factors Affecting Soil Development 90 // Processes and Rates of Soil Production 91 // Soil Profiles 91 // Soil Classification 95 // Soils and Landscapes 99 // Soil Development over Time 99 // Soil Catenas 99 // Paleosols 100 // Weathering-Dominated Landforms 101 // Inselbergs and Tors 102 // Duricrusts 103 // Applications 104 // Selected References and Further Reading 105 // Digging Deeper: How Fast Do Soils Form? 106 // Worked Problem 109 // Knowledge Assessment 110 // Geomorphic Hydrology 111 // Introduction 111 // Precipitation 112 // Duration and Intensity 113 // Recurrence Intervals 113 // Precipitation Delivery 114 // Climate Effects on Hydrology and Geomorphology 115 // Evapotranspiration 116 // Evapotranspiration Rates 116 // Actual Versus Potential Evapotranspiration 116 // Geomorphic Importance of Evapotranspiration 116 // Groundwater Hydrology 118 // Infiltration: Moving Water into the Ground 119 // Moving Water Through Earth Materials 120 // Hydrologie Flowpaths 122 // Surface Water Hydrology 126 // Hydrographs 126 // Interactions Between Groundwater and Surface Flow 129 // Flood Frequency 130 // Water Budgets 132 // Hydrologie Landforms 133 // Applications 137 // Selected References and Further Reading 137 // Digging Deeper: Humans, Hydrology, and Landscape Change—What’s the Connection? 138 // Worked Problem 141 // Knowledge Assessment 142 // Hillslopes 145 // Introduction 145 // Slope-Forming Materials 146 // Strength of Rock and Soil 147 // Effects of Weathering on Rock Strength 149 // Diffusive Processes 150 //
Rainsplash 150 // Sheetwash 151 // Soil Creep 151 // Mass Movements 153 // Slides 154 // Flows 156 // Falls 158 // Slope Stability 159 // Driving and Resisting Stresses 159 // Infinite-Slope Model 160 // Environmental and Time-Dependent Effects 161 // Slope Morphology 163 // Weathering-Limited (Bedrock) Slopes 163 // Transport-Limited (Soil-Mantled) Slopes 165 // Threshold Slopes 166 // Hillslope Evolution 166 // Drainage Density 166 // Box 5.1 // Derivation of the Form of Convex Hillslope Profiles 167 // Channel Initiation 170 // Applications 172 // Selected References and Further Reading 173 // Digging Deeper: How Much Do Roots Contribute to Slope Stability? 174 // Worked Problem 177 // Knowledge Assessment 178 // Channels 179 // Introduction 179 // External Controls on Fluvial Processesand Form 180 // Discharge 181 // Sediment Supply 181 // Gontenis vii // Bed and Bank Material 181 // Vegetation 184 // Fluvial Processes 185 // Flow Velocity 185 // Discharge Variability 187 // Stream Power 189 // Derivation of Stream Power 189 // Bedrock Incision 189 // Channel Migration 191 // Sediment Transport 194 // Initiation of Transport 194 // Sediment Loads 197 // Bedforms 198 // Channel Patterns 199 // Straight and Sinuous Channels 200 // Meandering Channels 201 // Braided Channels 201 // Anastomosing Channels 201 // Channel-Reach Morphology 202 // Colluvial Reaches 202 // Bedrock Reaches 202 // Alluvial Reaches 202 // Large Organic Debris 204 // Floodplains 205 // Channel Response 207 // Applications 208 // Selected References and Further Reading 209 // Digging Deeper: What Controls Rates of 8edrock River Incision? 211 // Worked Problem 214 // Knowledge Assessment 214 // Drainage Basins 217 // Introduction 217 // Basin-Scale Processes 219 // Sediment Budgets 219 // Sediment Routing and Storage 222 // Channel Networks and Basin Morphology 223 // Drainage Patterns 223 // Channel Ordering 225 // Downstream Trends 225 // Uplands to Lowlands 227 //
Process Domains and Valley Segments 228 // Longitudinal Profiles 230 // Channel Confinement and Floodplain Connectivity 231 // River Longitudinal Profiles 232 // Downstream Trends 232 // Drainage Basin Landforms 233 // Knickpoints 233 // Gorges 234 // Terraces 235 // Fans 237 // Lakes 239 // Applications 240 // Selected References and Further Reading 244 // Digging Deeper: When ErosionHappens, Where Does the Sediment Go? 245 // Worked Problem 250 // Knowledge Assessment 251 // Coastal and Submarine Geomorphology 253 // Introduction 253 // Coastal Settings and Drivers 254 // Tectonic Setting 254 // Sea-Level Change 254 // Salinity 256 // Substrate and Sediment Supply 256 // Tides 257 // Waves 259 // Coastal Processes and Landforms 264 // Rocky Coasts 264 // Beaches and Bars 266 // Spits, Tidal Deltas, and Barrier Islands 268 // Lagoons, Tidal Flats, and Marshes 270 // Estuaries 271 // Deltas 272 // Coastal Rivers 274 // Marine Settings and Drivers 274 // Currents 275 // Marine Sedimentation 276 // Dissolved Load 276 // Marine Landforms and Processes 276 // Continental Margins 277 // Abyssal Basins 278 // Mid-Ocean Ridges 278 // Trenches 279 // Coral Reefs 279 // Applications 281 // Selected References and Further Reading 281 // Digging Deeper: What Is Happening to the World’s Deltas? 283 // Worked Problem 286 // Knowledge Assessment 287 // viii Contents // PART III // Ice, Wind, and Fire 289 // Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology 291 // Introduction 291 // Glaciers 294 // Glacier Mass Balance 294 // Glacier Energy Balance 296 // Accumulation and Ablation of Glacial Ice 297 // Glacier Movement 299 // Thermal Character of Glaciers 302 // Glacial Hydrology 303 // Subglacial Processes and Glacial Erosion 305 // Glacial Sediment Transport and Deposition 309 // Subglacial Sediments and Landforms 309 // Ice-Marginal Sediments and Landforms 310 // Glacially Related Sediments and Landforms 311 // Glacial Landscapes,Landforms, and Deposits 313 //
Landforms of Alpine Glaciers 313 // Landforms of Ice Sheets 314 // Geomorphic Effects of Glaciation and Paraglacial Processes 315 // Periglacial Environments and Landforms 316 // Permafrost 317 // Characteristic Periglacial Landforms and Processes 318 // Applications 322 // Selected References and Further Reading 323 // Digging Deeper: How Much and Where Do Glaciers Erode? 324 // Worked Problem 327 // Knowledge Assessment 328 // Wind as a Geomorphic Agent 329 // Introduction 329 // Air as a Fluid 331 // Wind Patterns and Speeds 332 // Vertical Distribution of Wind Speed 333 // Settling Speed of Particles in Air 333 // Spatial Distribution of Wind-Driven Geomorphic Processes 334 // Aeolian Processes 335 // Disturbance 335 // Erosion 335 // Sediment Transport 337 // Deposition 341 // Aeolian Features, Landforms, and Deposits 342 // Aeolian Erosional Features and Landforms 342 // Aeolian Transport Features and Landforms 343 // Aeolian Dust Deposits and Loess 347 // Applications 350 // Selected References and Further Reading 351 // Digging Deeper: Desert Pavements—The Wind Connection 352 // Worked Problem 354 // Knowledge Assessment 354 // Volcanic Geomorphology 355 // Introduction 355 // Distribution and Styles of Volcanism 356 // Magma Chemistry and Volcano Morphology 359 // Tectonic Forcing and Volcanic Provinces 361 // Eruptive Mechanisms and Products 363 // Lava Flows 363 // Pyroclastic Flows and Falls 365 // Volcanic Gases 366 // Eruption Sizes and Types 368 // Volcanic Landscapes 368 // Landscapes

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