Front Cover; Precision Medicine: Tools and Quantitative Approaches; Copyright; Contents; Contributors; Preface; References; Chapter 1: Ethical Aspects of Precision Medicine: An Introduction to the Ethics and Concept of Clinical Innovation; 1 Introduction; 2 What Is Clinical Innovation?; 2.1 Clinical Innovation Is Neither Clinical Research nor Validated Medical Practice; 2.2 Clinical Innovation Is New Nonvalidated Practice; 2.2.1 Novelty; 2.2.2 Validation; 2.2.3 Benefit for the Individual; 3 What Is the Ethical Justification of Clinical Innovation?
4 How Should We Regulate Clinical Innovation?5 What is the importance of clinical innovation in precision medicine?; 6 Conclusion; Acknowledgments; References; Further Reading; Chapter 2: Issues and Challenges in the Systematic Evaluation of Biomarker Tests; 1 Introduction; 2 Terminology and Classifications; 2.1 Definition: Biomarker; 2.2 Differentiation of Functions of Biomarkers; 2.2.1 Differentiation by Type of Information; 2.2.2 Differentiation by the Context of Use; 2.3 Medical Tests; 2.4 Evaluation Framework; 3 Context for Analysis; 3.1 Developing an Analytical Framework
3.2 Formulation of Review Question With PICO3.2.1 Population; 3.2.2 Intervention; 3.2.3 Comparator; Differentiation Between Reference Standard and Comparator; 3.2.4 Outcomes; 4 Study Designs and Study Selection; 4.1 Literature Search; 4.2 Hierarchies of Evidence; 4.3 Diagnostic Accuracy Studies; 4.4 Prognostic Studies; 4.5 Randomized Clinical Trial Designs; 5 Critical Appraisal-Specific Issues in Biomarker Studies; 5.1 Diagnostic Accuracy Studies; 5.2 Prognosis Studies; 5.3 Linked-Evidence Evaluation of Co-dependent Technologies; References; Further Reading
Chapter 3: Statistical Learning in Precision Medicine1 Introduction; 2 Data; 3 Types of Statistical Learning Algorithms; 4 Steps in Supervised Learning; 4.1 Preparation of Data; 4.2 Handling Imbalanced Datasets; 4.3 Imputation of Missing Data; 4.4 Feature Selection; 4.5 Learning Algorithms; 4.6 Evaluating the Performance; 4.7 Improving Model Performance; 5 Sketch of the Workflow; 6 Conclusion; Acknowledgment; References; Chapter 4: Biobanks as Basis of Individualized Medicine: Challenges Toward Harmonization; 1 Introduction; 2 Governance; 3 Consent; 4 Vulnerable Groups; 4.1 Minors
4.2 Deceased Persons5 From Individual Rights to Solidarity; 6 Privacy; 7 Access to Samples and Data; 7.1 Public Trust; 8 Sustainability; 9 Quality Assurance Management (QAM); 10 Security; 11 Biobanks for Precision Medicine; 11.1 Return of results; 11.2 Networking activities; 11.2.1 BBMRI-ERIC; 11.2.2 EuroBioBank; 12 Future; 13 Conclusion; References; Chapter 5: Sequencing in Precision Medicine; 1 Sequencing Technologies; 2 Meaning of Sequencing; 3 First-Generation Sequencing; 3.1 Maxam-Gilbert ""Base-Specific Chemical Cleavage"" Sequencing; 3.1.1 Chemical Cleavage of Specific Bases
Precision Medicine: Tools and Quantitative Approaches discusses precision and personalized medicine, two relevant topics that are revolutionizing diagnostics and treatment, while also providing a shift toward prevention. The book covers the most relevant features and explanations underlying developments in the field. A timely review on prerequisites, causes and consequences is given. Unique to this book is a combined view on technical and data analysis aspects that is mandatory for obtaining and interpreting results. This book is a valuable source for researchers in medical and life sciences, physicians and students with an interest in this emerging field of precision medicine..