Front Cover; An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves; Copyright; Acknowledgments; Dedication; Table ofContents; Preface; Fundamentals; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 Some Wave Mechanics; 1.2.1 Waves, Harmonics, and Modes; 1.2.2 Frames of Reference; 1.2.3 Wave Scales; 1.2.4 Wave Phase and Wave Speed; 1.2.5 Group Velocity; 1.2.6 Wave Dispersion; 1.3 The Buoyant Force; 1.4 The Boussinesq Approximation; The Linear Theory; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 The Taylor-Goldstein Equation; 2.3 A Simple Solution; 2.3.1 No Background Wind Speed; 2.3.2 Constant Background Wind Speed.
2.4 The WKB or S̀̀lowly Varying’’ Method2.5 Energetics; 2.5.1 Wave Energy; 2.5.2 Wave-Activity Conservation Laws; 184.108.40.206 Wave Action; 220.127.116.11 Pseudo-Energy and Pseudo-Momentum; Mountain Waves; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Uniform Flow Over a Surface Corrugation; 3.3 The Two-Dimensional Mountain; 3.4 The Three-Dimensional Mountain; 3.5 Nonorographic Gravity Waves; Ducted Gravity Waves; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Wave Reflection and Refraction at an Elevated Layer; 4.3 Wave Trapping, Energy Flux, and Wave Resonance; 4.4 Reflection at the Ground Surface; 4.5 Wave Ducts; 4.5.1 The Pure Temperature Duct.
4.5.2 The Pure Wind Duct4.5.3 Wind Spirals and Ducts; 4.5.4 Mountain Lee Waves; Gravity Wave Instability and Turbulence; 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Parcel Exchange Analysis of Flow Stability; 5.3 Wave Instability; 5.3.1 Introduction; 5.3.2 Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability; 5.3.3 The Stability of Shear Flows; 18.104.22.168 Inflection Point Instability; 22.214.171.124 Instability of Stratified Shear Flows; 5.4 The Critical Level; 5.5 Neutral, Stable, and Unstable Modes; 5.6 Wave-Modulated Richardson Number; 5.7 Wave-Turbulence Coupling; 5.8 Jefferys’ Roll-Wave Instability Mechanism; Wave Stress; 6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Mathematical Derivation6.3 Variation of Wave Stress with Height; 6.4 Mountain Wave Stress; 6.4.1 Wave Stress Over a Surface Corrugation; 126.96.36.199 Wave Stress Over an Isolated Two-Dimensional Mountain; 6.4.2 Wave Stress Over Three-Dimensional Objects; 6.5 Secondary Effects of Wave Drag; 6.5.1 Direction Forcing; 6.5.2 Lee Wave Drag Over a Two-Dimensional Mountain; 6.5.3 Momentum Flux Due to Mountain Lee Waves; Gravity Waves in the Middle and Upper Atmosphere; 7.1 Introduction; 7.2 Background; 7.3 Interia-Gravity Waves in the Middle Atmosphere; 7.4 Planetary Waves in the Middle Atmosphere.
Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation. An accompanying website contains real data, computer codes for data analysis, and linear gravity wave models to further enhance the reader’s understanding of the book’s material. Companion web site features animations and streaming video Foreword by George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interactions of gravity waves with turbulenceIncludes a new application-based component for use in climate and weather predictions..